Stronger role of public enterprises and few private/public linkages state targeted interventions. Equivalent to miti: targeted industrial planning by small technocratic group. Much less systematic cooperative discussion, and close management that some of the japanese and korean had embodied. Japan had already the structures to manage the economy. Authoritarian tendencies: shielding form public pressure and interest groups stable executive public mobilization for development goals a state directed public mobilization. Not authoritarian not democratic in the sense of having change over government. State appears as a case that has failed long term. Lots of growth with 2 decades of stagnation. The old" system reached its limits, reforms made things worse. Japan its starting point is fairly developed which has its failing democratic issues. pre-1945 authoritarianism industrialization n and the meiji restoration the roots of industrialization are before 1945 when others are beginning to industrialize.