POL215Y1 Lecture Notes - Meiji Restoration, Ministry Of International Trade And Industry, Authoritarianism

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19 Nov 2012
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POL215 LEC 7 10/18/2012 6:06:00 AM
Developmental state cont.
Taiwan:
No large conglomerates
Stronger role of public enterprises and few private/public linkages
state targeted interventions
Equivalent to MITI: targeted industrial planning by small technocratic group
-much less systematic cooperative discussion, and close management that
some of the Japanese and Korean had embodied.
Historic Accident?
Japan and militarist past
cold war politics
Japan had already the structures to manage the economy.
Authoritarian or democratic?
MITI
Authoritarian tendencies:
shielding form public pressure and interest groups
stable executive
public mobilization for development goals a state directed public
mobilization.
Korea and Taiwan authoritarian
Japan? Not authoritarian not democratic in the sense of having change over
government.
Did it work long term?
Japan:
The original dev. State appears as a case that has failed long term. Lots of
growth with 2 decades of stagnation.
-the ‘old’ system reached its limits, reforms made things worse.
South Korea and Taiwan:
continued of growth
Democratization
Significant change in managing the economy
Japan
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Was japan going to be able to transition from a militarist regime into a new
political system
does economic development produce democracy over long term?
Japan its starting point is fairly developed which has its failing democratic
issues.
pre-1945 authoritarianism
industrialization n and the meiji restoration
the roots of industrialization are before 1945 when others are beginning to
industrialize.
The rise of militarism and the war machine
we see japan emerge early on that is capable to fight. The military ideology
was partly based on fascist Europe: the build up war machines and to target
sectors into industrialization.
japan was however defeated in the war, the beginning of a new system for
japan.
Post World War II
American occupation 1945-52
were some significant changes to try to dismantle this militarist regime to
put something new in place.
IT was very important for the American that the military was taken over.
They also did not want communism to spread.
The constitution in some ways had the instrument to prevent militarism from
returning. A clause that eliminated the armed forces in Japan.
At the same time stirring the economy in the way that it would be a success
would stop the spread of communism.
America broke up many of the large conglomerates in place previously.
Land reform farmers became a very important constituency of the liberal
democratic party.
Education was decentralized and that enabled less state centered
curriculum.
Americans supported labour unions, they saw this as being anti militarist.
All of these reforms were put in place to break the patterns of a militarist
regimes. Initially the electoral system proportional representation system
which was the changed to a district system.
In 1953 the occupation ended and began the economic boom that was
essentially going to make Japans future until the 1990’s
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