POL222H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Frank Luntz, Spurious Relationship, Confounding

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19 Jan 2020
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Theory:: one of more fluffy making ingredients makes a muffin fluffy. Researcher controls the value of the independent variable. Exposure to negative ad voter turnout. Frank luntz: negative ads are designed to get the base engaged and involved. We may use survey research to examine the relationship between exposure to negative advertisements and the likelihood of voting. Did you vote in the federal election. Finding a positive bivariate relationship between the explosire to negative ads and turnout is consistent with the possibility of a spurious relationship. Another possibility: a sign of relationship is reversed. Sign of the relationship can be reversed if the magnitude of the positive relationship induced by a confounding variable is greater than the relationship between x and y. Negative ads can increase, decrease, or not affect voter turnout. If individuals are randomly assigned to different groups, the characteristics of individuals will be on average the same across groups. Lab experiment set up in a university.

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