Africa has higher mean temperatures and lower rainfall than in other continents. Around the equator intense year round rainfall ---equatorial rain forests. Larger band has wet summer and dry winter. Below central africa there is higher rainfall than the north. Rainfall- the equatorial belt generally has high rainfall, whereas northern and southern. African countries and those in the horn of africa are typically arid or semi-arid. All parts of africa, even those that usually have high rainfall experience climatic variability and extreme events such as floods or droughts. Cold temperatures are a real barrier to the reproduction of disease and bacteria, and so we get very few of them across much of the tropics. Similarly plant pests are much more prolific in the tropics. This gives us an overall picture of why food production is faced with chronic conditions, so low yields and fragility. 2 . urban bias over rural dwellers.