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POL312Y1 Lecture Notes - Technological Change, Energy Superpower, Nexen

Political Science
Course Code

of 2
POL312 Canadian Foreign Policy
Lecture 22
Prof. Greaves
Mar 21 2013
Class 22
Environmental Policy and Natural Resource Development
- Exam:
o Wednesday April 10 2013
o 7-9pm
o Rm EX320 (255 McCaul St.)
Natural resources and CanFP
- Overlapping issues and issue linkage
o Economic growth vs. environmental protection
o Aboriginal politics: indigenous rights and sovereignty
Historically had different relationship with the natural
environment, meaning it depicts Aboriginal people’s
relationship with the nature
Because the land bases in America has shrunk successively in
North America for the indigenous, they have become very
protective of the indigenous land
o Climate change and development in Global South
o Can-US: joint GHG targets. NAFTA, and pipelines
Has implication because we have that massive resource had
i.e. Bilateral energy trade between Canada and the US
o Climate change and Arctic resources
o Natural resources and FDI at home and abroad
Nexen bought by CNOOC for $15 million
Barrick Gold widely criticized for mines in Chile, PND, and DR
Wide concern raised in the Canadian business sector
o Resource Boom driven by
Scarcity: peak oil (-ish) and high prices (now falling)
Technological change: unconventional oil (bitumen),
unconventional natural gas (shale), deep water drilling
We have developed new ways and technologies to get
the energy.
Staples Theory (Harold Innis)
- Canadian economy is peripheral to world system: “resource storehouse”
- Canadian economy developed historically through extraction f successive
“staple” commodities for export – fish, fur, timber, grains, and energy
- Makes Canada dependent on export markets: leads to “staples trap”
- From staple trap to “carbon trap” (Haley)
- Canada as an “energy satellite” (Laxer)
Canada as Energy Superpower
- Canada has abundant energy supplies: oil and gas, hydro-electric, nuclear,
and high potential for wind, biofuel and tidal
o Regionally concentrated, federal energy politics exacerbate regional
o Production much less than reserves (4 percent global oil production 6
percent natural gas)
- 2006 G8 summit in St. Petersburg PM Harper announces Canada as an
“emerging energy superpower”
o “Canada intends to be not just an energy superpower but also a clean
energy superpower, because the reality of climate change is upon us”
PM Harper May 29 2008
Bitumen/oil/tar sands
- Picture to the very left the top 3 regions with the most energy
- Growing interest in this untapped Northern part of Alberta
- 175 billion barrels of recoverable oil
- 2 million barrels per day
- Less than 50 percent Canadian oil production
- 99 percent goes to US
Hydrocarbon pipelines
- Less than 100,000km of pipelines across Canada
- Less than 1 million in US
Resistance and criminalization
- “Tar sands” and pipeline projects have experiences significant popular
o Twin fool of local environmental damage and climate change
o Canada, US and Europe
- Protests and activism led by environmental groups and Aboriginal peoples
- Activism, lobbying, protests manifest globally and locally.
- Escalating rhetoric and tactics by government and protestors, growing
diversity of protestors involved in campaigns