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POL312Y1 Lecture Notes - Brad Delson, Bilateralism, One-Man Operation

Political Science
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Oct 11 2012
POL 312Y1 Canadian Foreign Policy
Prof. Greaves
Page 1
POL 312Y1 Canadian Foreign Policy
Lecture 5 Thursday, Oct 11, 2012
Early 20th century Canada as Nation
- Each of the historical themes will be recurring in the course.
North American fact
- 2 aspects: geographic situation in N. America and proximity to US
- Geography: Sharing a continent with US and Mexico from Canadian view we
are closer to US.
- Language: French were competing with Britain for the continent we have
preserved and maintained this linguistic minority in Quebec. US has too,
although it has replaced it with Spanish speaking community. So we share a
language English, and also existence of minority language.
- Culture: we have very important values and theories of liberalism with US.
We share ethnic ground that used to be more similar than today
predominantly white.
- Ethnicity: both mostly from UK and French, but US and Canada are different
in a sense that US has more African American.
- Canadian independence: Canada and US do not see the kinds of behavior that
led to violent conflict between each other. They are allied in happy
circumstances. This political relationship has not been predetermined.
- North American geography = essential fact of Canadian history
- US independence created 2 countries
o Modern Canada
o Immigrants from US became the backbone of Canadian society
(wealthy) and brought with them the tradition in validity of British
rules. This loyalty to the mother country became a significant part of
Canadian history.
- From the early conflict to security community
- Framework to contemporary Canada-US bilateralism
o There is nothing new in histories of the countries since so closely
- Narcissism of minor difference: gravitational pull of US?
o There was a deeply held belief among US that they didn’t need to
concur us. It was going to happen eventually
o Simple progress of liberalism became the willing member of US
- Video that was supposed to be shown today will be posted. Video deals with
this phenomenon of crown and sovereignty.
Federalism, sovereignty, crown
- Crown:
Oct 11 2012
POL 312Y1 Canadian Foreign Policy
Prof. Greaves
Page 2
o One-man corporation corporate entity that we have given political
authority to, and put in the center of system of government. this is
where our sovereign power is invested. Crown is literal embodiment
of the power of this country.
o We are large territory and 80% of it is Crown land. This is a more
dramatic claim on paper than in fact. Our founding and American
founding difference is quite important.
o Crown doesn’t mean the same thing that means today but still
important political development in our country
- Divided sovereignty:
o GG and LG’s co-equal representatives of Crown
o Difference between federal govt in Ottawa and the rest provincial
govt. Provinces has as much sovereignty, not from the federal govt,
but are fully sovereign on their own. This makes provinces very
powerful and that is why we call Canada decentralized because other
countries don’t have that. The reason for this provincial power is for
the fact that provinces enjoy their own sovereignty.
o This idea of lawful authority is different from actual political power
and decision-making, which is not invested in crown anymore but in
Empire Autonomy Independence
- Relative degree of agency Canada exercises in politics
- Canada has Independence in politics of its own
- Colony: until 1867 when we became federated, we were colony
- Self-governing dominion: no longer colony. In 1931 sovereign power was
given to several British colonial dominions at that time.
- Sovereign state: We have become legally sovereign but not yet fully
- Constitutionally independent: missing peace to complete sovereignty.
- Liberal empire the idea of Canada as a colony - the nature of the empire we
are part of liberal vs. conservatism. British empire was forged by force.
Canada was not kept in British empire by force, but we wanted to be.
Mythmaking and the Canadian Nation
- English, French, and Aboriginal Canada - we have always had these 3
- US doesn’t have that problem. They have a very strong conception of one
- Moments that threaten a nation or cause a rupture in relationship we have
together as people
o 1899: Laurier was a president at this time. Not everyone was happy
when Canada went to fight that Britain was fighting
o 1909 Canada was told to open own office.
Oct 11 2012
POL 312Y1 Canadian Foreign Policy
Prof. Greaves
Page 3
o 1914 matters a lot because the ambiguity with British made us
declare Germany as enemy, so we did too.
o 1918 Conscription crisis understanding of what derives decision
making in Canadian politics
o 1923 This was the first time Canadian crown signed the treaty
instead of British representative of Canada
o 1939 Considers if they want to participating war waiting
reasonable time, independently on Germany.