POL326Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Security Interest, Kenneth Waltz, Hegemony

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21 Sep 2017
POL326 Week 2 Sept. 18th, 2017
Recap of last week
Last class we talked about ways of conceptualizing the state
o Understanding different conceptions of the state allows us to develop hypothesis of explaining the actions of
Theories of the state
Conventional understandings of states that dominate the study of FP
Liberalists and pluralists tend to see the state as a dependent variable (the thing that is acted upon)
Origins of states states are created by the people to serve their interests
Based on a social contract between the governed and the governors
Necessity of the rule of law
o What defines them as liberals is the idea that the state itself is subject to these laws (no one is above the law)
a mutual entity
Studying the outputs of policy focuses on things like elections, legislation procedures, etc.
FP is generally considered not really much different than domestic policy (FP is an outgrowth of DP), it just
influences the international environment
This approach does have a fair amount of explanatory poer, e: ho’s likel to i the et election, how come
Clinton lost the last election
o A realists or a Marist ould’t hae a aser for this eause the see it as largel irreleat, hereas it is
the core of importance for L/P
Trade, rather than other aspects of FP is under the authority of Congress, not the executive branch
o Congress is open to lobbying by other interests groups
o In this regard, trade has impact on both the external and internal environment
o Who benefits/suffers from trade will determine what groups tend to lobby in favour of one policy over
another (L/P strong suit)
They are also good at explaining things like foreign aid argue that aid should be understood as a subsidy to a
domestic industry
o For the most part most Americans see foreign aid as a giveaway and are in favour of cutting it
o But sometimes they can benefit from it (exporting American food, produced by American farmers)
o Same goes for development aid
o Aid as domestic implications and for that reason domestic roots that will come in defense of international aid
Liberals also offer explanation about the military-industrial complex
o Points to the coincidence of interest between various domestic groups as related to FP
o Contractors depend very heavily on the defense department for their economic well-being
o Congress military contractors and the military understand that their funding depends on Congress
L/P’s hae a great deal of eplaator poer i uderstadig U“ FP
Marists agree that the state is a depedet ariale i order to uderstad poli ou do’t look at the state, ou
look at those who act upon the state)
While it argues, the state is a dependent variable, it argues the state is a rigged game the ruling elite
o The do’t see it as a eutral or fair area
o Seems to suggest that the state is the instrument of the dominant elites
o Used as an instrument by the dominant elites because they tend to have close connections to the elites that
run the state (they trade places on a regular basis, revolving door relationship)
o These connections mean that these elites are able to shake gov. policy to favour their interests
o The also argue this a’t e trasparet, otherise it ould de-stabilize
o In order to avoid instability, the state has to be seen to be legitimate it has to have relative autonomy
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