POL326Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Comparative Politics, Ruling Class, Dependent And Independent Variables

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4 Mar 2018
School
Course
WWII
§
War the result of individuals hell bent on making war, expanding territories, etc.
o
Pluralist tradition – democratic peace theory
Certain types more prone to war than others
§
Nature of states determine inevitability of war
o
A system characterized by anarchy – there is no higher authority to which individual states can appeal to protect their interests
§
Usually military, but all intertwined.
States responsible for their own security – only able to do that by amassing more power
§
§
International system best explains the emergence of wars
o
Kenneth Waltz: 3 images that explain war
Realist = no prospect for a world government
§
Because anarchy at level of international system is understood to be permanent.
o
Was very unique in that it was a rare occurrence.
§
Waltz wrote at time of international bi-polarity
o
Allow for alliances
§
Some consider a multi-polar system to be more stable
o
Ex: Cold War
Imbalances between two poles encourages taking advantage of superiority to weaken their adversary
§
Bi-polar system only has two poles
o
Bi-polarity ended with the falling of the Berlin wall and the end of the Cold War
o
Turned into a unipolar system which is different
o
Waltzthird image the most important in explaining war
War of choice is inherently irrational
o
States are rational because they are disciplined by the international system.
o
States that remain in the international system are those that are relatively rational.
o
States are rational actors – not because they consist of rational people, but rather because they do not have the luxury to indulge in irrational acts.
Spent an enormous amount of wealth and military hardware than it had on any other war.
§
Despite all of that it ultimately lost the war.
§
Went into the war because of the “domino” theory.
§
Ex: intervention in Vietnam War considered to be an act of irrationality
o
US foreign policy has some substantial problems in terms of rationality.
Always have to take actions on incomplete information in international relations.
Ex: Intervention in Iraq
§
US faced no threat and faced no need to engage in conflict but did anyways
o
“In the absence of threat, policy becomes capricious Waltz
o
therefore not nature of states but nature of the international system
o
Post Cold-War period
Individuals are not particularly important in shaping the activities of states.
o
Current environment had to be revised
In the absences of a major adversary, the US defined the nature of the international system.
US becomes crucial factor in the international system.
Mid Term
6 key terms to identify
dealing with broader themes of the course.
o
2 essay questions of which you will answer 1
Format for the final will be more or less the same as mid-term
Research Paper
No suggested research topics – choose your own topic
Research topic, research question, tentative hypothesis
o
Will provide opportunity to submit a research proposal – no more than 250 words
DUE OCTOBER 30th
Lecture
In the realm of comparative politics, those definitions are in keeping with the definitions argued in the textbook
o
Determines who is rewarded and who is not rewarded
Depending on what is in high demand on the market and what is not in high demand
Allocation can be done through command – some allocation is absolutely necessary.
Who pays taxes, who serves in the military, etc.
Politics is about command
Politics is about allocation
§
Who gets what when where and how
o
The definitions that prevail of the core subject matter is somewhat different than the understanding of those concepts in the realm of international relations
Political commands have unique feature of being enforceable against the will of those being commanded
What happens in legislature – and policy is made by pitting interests against each other through legislative systems
o
Politics takes place within societies
Politics is first and foremost and almost exclusively, not about who gets what when where and how within society but basic dichotomy of us vs. the other – friend vs. foe.
§
Every state has to be able to decide what other societies states they can peacefully coexist with and which they cannot.
§
Keep at bay the threat of order that is always imposed by other societies.
§
Carl Schmidt: The Concept of Political
o
International policy takes precedence over domestic policy.
o
In international relations politics is understood in a different manner
That government governs best by governing least
§
US constitution the output of that concept.
Make process of governing as inefficient as it could be
§
However, the American political system is geared towards lassie fair
o
Constitutional design was to protect minorities.
o
American foreign policy primarily concerned with security and survival.
The most important component is efficiency – government has to be efficient in order to address threats as quickly as possible.
It was always free from external threat – had a giant moat protecting itself from other powers.
o
While that protection allowed US to put national defense on the back burner – changed in the 20th century.
o
US emerged as a power under very unusual circumstances
States are crucial component of analysis – understanding what the state is will allow us to engage what foreign policy actually signifies.
o
Substantial disagreement about the nature of states – what states actually are
More important is outcome of competition between various groups to influence the state
§
Dependent variable = state not an actor but the thing being acted upon.
o
State is neutral arena in which competition take place. The outcome of which determine policy.
o
Understanding policy = looking at various forces that act on the state.
o
Foreign policy is simply an outgrowth of domestic policy.
o
Karl Marx.
§
Ruling class rules – even in a democracy, the capitalists rule
o
Liberals and pluralists see the state as a dependent variable
On a regular basis they trade places
o
In many cases they move from the corporate world to government service
o
Not too surprising that government acts in the interest of those dominant elites
o
Stuck between demands of accumulation, and demands of legitimation – that gap provides the state with relative autonomy.
Scope of that freedom to move is seriously limited.
Derives from keeping the economy flowing and does so by instituting policies that benefit the main economic actors, but at the same time in democratic context, if state were on
a regular basis exclusively to side with corporate interests, becomes difficult to sustain in keeping support of 99%
§
Instrumentalist view
§
State at best has relative autonomy.
o
Revolving door relationship between elites
Class conscious ruling class – assumption that all ruling elites share the same interest
§
No such thing as a “ruling class” – capitalists might have certain things in common, but they have separate interests – so they do not all share the same basic interests.
§
There is no reason to assume that the ruling class is one unit and are all the same.
§
Have a problem with the idea of the dependent variable – argued that it suffered from substantial problems
o
Not to defend capitalists, but to maintain long-term stability of the capitalist system as a whole.
§
Ex: 1930s, capital system faced deep deep crisis that was overcome by Roosevelt’s New Deal (welfare state, minimum wage, social security) based on taxing corporations to
create these programs for the poor.
§
The reason the state acts in the interest of capital has nothing to do with personal relationship
o
They are focused on their own ability to make profit.
§
Cannot explain that on the intervention of capitalists – they fought it tooth and nail
o
Maintaining the ability of companies as a whole to make profits.
o
The ruling class does not rule
o
Extensive ties between rulers of the states and rulers of the corporate world.
o
This relationship is a form of corruption that keeps the state from performing the role it is supposed to.
o
Structuralists
Lecture 1: Sept. 11
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This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
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WWII
§
War the result of individuals hell bent on making war, expanding territories, etc.
o
Pluralist tradition – democratic peace theory
Certain types more prone to war than others
§
Nature of states determine inevitability of war
o
A system characterized by anarchy – there is no higher authority to which individual states can appeal to protect their interests
§
Usually military, but all intertwined.
States responsible for their own security – only able to do that by amassing more power
§
Imbalances in those systems make war inevitable.
§
International system best explains the emergence of wars
o
Kenneth Waltz: 3 images that explain war
Realist = no prospect for a world government
§
Because anarchy at level of international system is understood to be permanent.
o
Was very unique in that it was a rare occurrence.
§
Waltz wrote at time of international bi-polarity
o
Allow for alliances
§
Some consider a multi-polar system to be more stable
o
Ex: Cold War
Imbalances between two poles encourages taking advantage of superiority to weaken their adversary
§
Bi-polar system only has two poles
o
Bi-polarity ended with the falling of the Berlin wall and the end of the Cold War
o
Turned into a unipolar system which is different
o
Waltzthird image the most important in explaining war
War of choice is inherently irrational
o
States are rational because they are disciplined by the international system.
o
States that remain in the international system are those that are relatively rational.
o
States are rational actors – not because they consist of rational people, but rather because they do not have the luxury to indulge in irrational acts.
Spent an enormous amount of wealth and military hardware than it had on any other war.
§
Despite all of that it ultimately lost the war.
§
Went into the war because of the “domino” theory.
§
Ex: intervention in Vietnam War considered to be an act of irrationality
o
US foreign policy has some substantial problems in terms of rationality.
Always have to take actions on incomplete information in international relations.
Ex: Intervention in Iraq
§
US faced no threat and faced no need to engage in conflict but did anyways
o
“In the absence of threat, policy becomes capricious Waltz
o
therefore not nature of states but nature of the international system
o
Post Cold-War period
Individuals are not particularly important in shaping the activities of states.
o
Current environment had to be revised
In the absences of a major adversary, the US defined the nature of the international system.
US becomes crucial factor in the international system.
Mid Term
6 key terms to identify
dealing with broader themes of the course.
o
2 essay questions of which you will answer 1
Format for the final will be more or less the same as mid-term
Research Paper
No suggested research topics – choose your own topic
Research topic, research question, tentative hypothesis
o
Will provide opportunity to submit a research proposal – no more than 250 words
DUE OCTOBER 30th
Lecture
In the realm of comparative politics, those definitions are in keeping with the definitions argued in the textbook
o
Determines who is rewarded and who is not rewarded
Depending on what is in high demand on the market and what is not in high demand
Allocation can be done through command – some allocation is absolutely necessary.
Who pays taxes, who serves in the military, etc.
Politics is about command
Politics is about allocation
§
Who gets what when where and how
o
The definitions that prevail of the core subject matter is somewhat different than the understanding of those concepts in the realm of international relations
Political commands have unique feature of being enforceable against the will of those being commanded
What happens in legislature – and policy is made by pitting interests against each other through legislative systems
o
Politics takes place within societies
Politics is first and foremost and almost exclusively, not about who gets what when where and how within society but basic dichotomy of us vs. the other – friend vs. foe.
§
Every state has to be able to decide what other societies states they can peacefully coexist with and which they cannot.
§
Keep at bay the threat of order that is always imposed by other societies.
§
Carl Schmidt: The Concept of Political
o
International policy takes precedence over domestic policy.
o
In international relations politics is understood in a different manner
That government governs best by governing least
§
US constitution the output of that concept.
Make process of governing as inefficient as it could be
§
However, the American political system is geared towards lassie fair
o
Constitutional design was to protect minorities.
o
American foreign policy primarily concerned with security and survival.
The most important component is efficiency – government has to be efficient in order to address threats as quickly as possible.
It was always free from external threat – had a giant moat protecting itself from other powers.
o
While that protection allowed US to put national defense on the back burner – changed in the 20th century.
o
US emerged as a power under very unusual circumstances
States are crucial component of analysis – understanding what the state is will allow us to engage what foreign policy actually signifies.
o
Substantial disagreement about the nature of states – what states actually are
More important is outcome of competition between various groups to influence the state
§
Dependent variable = state not an actor but the thing being acted upon.
o
State is neutral arena in which competition take place. The outcome of which determine policy.
o
Understanding policy = looking at various forces that act on the state.
o
Foreign policy is simply an outgrowth of domestic policy.
o
Karl Marx.
§
Ruling class rules – even in a democracy, the capitalists rule
o
Liberals and pluralists see the state as a dependent variable
On a regular basis they trade places
o
In many cases they move from the corporate world to government service
o
Not too surprising that government acts in the interest of those dominant elites
o
Stuck between demands of accumulation, and demands of legitimation – that gap provides the state with relative autonomy.
Scope of that freedom to move is seriously limited.
Derives from keeping the economy flowing and does so by instituting policies that benefit the main economic actors, but at the same time in democratic context, if state were on
a regular basis exclusively to side with corporate interests, becomes difficult to sustain in keeping support of 99%
§
Instrumentalist view
§
State at best has relative autonomy.
o
Revolving door relationship between elites
Class conscious ruling class – assumption that all ruling elites share the same interest
§
No such thing as a “ruling class” – capitalists might have certain things in common, but they have separate interests – so they do not all share the same basic interests.
§
There is no reason to assume that the ruling class is one unit and are all the same.
§
Have a problem with the idea of the dependent variable – argued that it suffered from substantial problems
o
Not to defend capitalists, but to maintain long-term stability of the capitalist system as a whole.
§
Ex: 1930s, capital system faced deep deep crisis that was overcome by Roosevelt’s New Deal (welfare state, minimum wage, social security) based on taxing corporations to
create these programs for the poor.
§
The reason the state acts in the interest of capital has nothing to do with personal relationship
o
They are focused on their own ability to make profit.
§
Cannot explain that on the intervention of capitalists – they fought it tooth and nail
o
Maintaining the ability of companies as a whole to make profits.
o
The ruling class does not rule
o
Extensive ties between rulers of the states and rulers of the corporate world.
o
This relationship is a form of corruption that keeps the state from performing the role it is supposed to.
o
Structuralists
Lecture 1: Sept. 11
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
WWII
§
War the result of individuals hell bent on making war, expanding territories, etc.
o
Pluralist tradition – democratic peace theory
Certain types more prone to war than others
§
Nature of states determine inevitability of war
o
A system characterized by anarchy – there is no higher authority to which individual states can appeal to protect their interests
§
Usually military, but all intertwined.
States responsible for their own security – only able to do that by amassing more power
§
Imbalances in those systems make war inevitable.
§
International system best explains the emergence of wars
o
Kenneth Waltz: 3 images that explain war
Realist = no prospect for a world government
§
Because anarchy at level of international system is understood to be permanent.
o
Was very unique in that it was a rare occurrence.
§
Waltz wrote at time of international bi-polarity
o
Allow for alliances
§
Some consider a multi-polar system to be more stable
o
Ex: Cold War
Imbalances between two poles encourages taking advantage of superiority to weaken their adversary
§
Bi-polar system only has two poles
o
Bi-polarity ended with the falling of the Berlin wall and the end of the Cold War
o
Turned into a unipolar system which is different
o
Waltzthird image the most important in explaining war
War of choice is inherently irrational
o
States are rational because they are disciplined by the international system.
o
States that remain in the international system are those that are relatively rational.
o
States are rational actors – not because they consist of rational people, but rather because they do not have the luxury to indulge in irrational acts.
Spent an enormous amount of wealth and military hardware than it had on any other war.
§
Despite all of that it ultimately lost the war.
§
Went into the war because of the “domino” theory.
§
Ex: intervention in Vietnam War considered to be an act of irrationality
o
US foreign policy has some substantial problems in terms of rationality.
Always have to take actions on incomplete information in international relations.
Ex: Intervention in Iraq
§
US faced no threat and faced no need to engage in conflict but did anyways
o
“In the absence of threat, policy becomes capricious Waltz
o
therefore not nature of states but nature of the international system
o
Post Cold-War period
Individuals are not particularly important in shaping the activities of states.
o
Current environment had to be revised
In the absences of a major adversary, the US defined the nature of the international system.
US becomes crucial factor in the international system.
Mid Term
6 key terms to identify
dealing with broader themes of the course.
o
2 essay questions of which you will answer 1
Format for the final will be more or less the same as mid-term
Research Paper
No suggested research topics – choose your own topic
Research topic, research question, tentative hypothesis
o
Will provide opportunity to submit a research proposal – no more than 250 words
DUE OCTOBER 30th
Lecture
In the realm of comparative politics, those definitions are in keeping with the definitions argued in the textbook
o
Determines who is rewarded and who is not rewarded
Depending on what is in high demand on the market and what is not in high demand
Allocation can be done through command – some allocation is absolutely necessary.
Who pays taxes, who serves in the military, etc.
Politics is about command
Politics is about allocation
§
Who gets what when where and how
o
The definitions that prevail of the core subject matter is somewhat different than the understanding of those concepts in the realm of international relations
Political commands have unique feature of being enforceable against the will of those being commanded
What happens in legislature – and policy is made by pitting interests against each other through legislative systems
o
Politics takes place within societies
Politics is first and foremost and almost exclusively, not about who gets what when where and how within society but basic dichotomy of us vs. the other – friend vs. foe.
§
Every state has to be able to decide what other societies states they can peacefully coexist with and which they cannot.
§
Keep at bay the threat of order that is always imposed by other societies.
§
Carl Schmidt: The Concept of Political
o
International policy takes precedence over domestic policy.
o
In international relations politics is understood in a different manner
That government governs best by governing least
§
US constitution the output of that concept.
Make process of governing as inefficient as it could be
§
However, the American political system is geared towards lassie fair
o
Constitutional design was to protect minorities.
o
American foreign policy primarily concerned with security and survival.
The most important component is efficiency – government has to be efficient in order to address threats as quickly as possible.
It was always free from external threat – had a giant moat protecting itself from other powers.
o
While that protection allowed US to put national defense on the back burner – changed in the 20th century.
o
US emerged as a power under very unusual circumstances
States are crucial component of analysis – understanding what the state is will allow us to engage what foreign policy actually signifies.
o
Substantial disagreement about the nature of states – what states actually are
More important is outcome of competition between various groups to influence the state
§
Dependent variable = state not an actor but the thing being acted upon.
o
State is neutral arena in which competition take place. The outcome of which determine policy.
o
Understanding policy = looking at various forces that act on the state.
o
Foreign policy is simply an outgrowth of domestic policy.
o
Karl Marx.
§
Ruling class rules – even in a democracy, the capitalists rule
o
Liberals and pluralists see the state as a dependent variable
On a regular basis they trade places
o
In many cases they move from the corporate world to government service
o
Not too surprising that government acts in the interest of those dominant elites
o
Stuck between demands of accumulation, and demands of legitimation – that gap provides the state with relative autonomy.
Scope of that freedom to move is seriously limited.
Derives from keeping the economy flowing and does so by instituting policies that benefit the main economic actors, but at the same time in democratic context, if state were on
a regular basis exclusively to side with corporate interests, becomes difficult to sustain in keeping support of 99%
§
Instrumentalist view
§
State at best has relative autonomy.
o
Revolving door relationship between elites
Class conscious ruling class – assumption that all ruling elites share the same interest
§
No such thing as a “ruling class” – capitalists might have certain things in common, but they have separate interests – so they do not all share the same basic interests.
§
There is no reason to assume that the ruling class is one unit and are all the same.
§
Have a problem with the idea of the dependent variable – argued that it suffered from substantial problems
o
Not to defend capitalists, but to maintain long-term stability of the capitalist system as a whole.
§
Ex: 1930s, capital system faced deep deep crisis that was overcome by Roosevelt’s New Deal (welfare state, minimum wage, social security) based on taxing corporations to
create these programs for the poor.
§
The reason the state acts in the interest of capital has nothing to do with personal relationship
o
They are focused on their own ability to make profit.
§
Cannot explain that on the intervention of capitalists – they fought it tooth and nail
o
Maintaining the ability of companies as a whole to make profits.
o
The ruling class does not rule
o
Extensive ties between rulers of the states and rulers of the corporate world.
o
This relationship is a form of corruption that keeps the state from performing the role it is supposed to.
o
Structuralists
Lecture 1: Sept. 11
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