POL326Y1 Lecture 11: Military Lecture

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26 Aug 2019
State department
Militarization of American Foreign Policy
Preference of using American military instead of diplomacy
As America becomes a player in IR, the creation of IOs as a means of international disputes in place of
secretive diplomacy
America as such became the biggest promoter in the idea of IOs; only a portion of elites saw these as
advancing American interests; others see it as commitment to IOs
This commitment to the UN is perhaps unstable
o Ex. Jerusalem: Trump feels his interest will advance will intensify Mid-East relations
The military is an instrument of diplomacy
o The military is a much more central tool in the chest of USFP than the state department
o This relation between the exec branch and state department can be illustrated with Obama admin
Obama ran an insurgent candidacy in 2008;
Successful for he focused much of his campaign on American foreign policy
George HW Bush 92: having succeeded in panama and Iraq; looked less unsalable; never
focused on economy; on this appeal, Clinton succeeded
In 2008, he was elected based on the wars in Afghanistan and his policies on the war on
terror; his main opponent, Hillary Clinton who voted for the war in Iraq; there’s a sharp
contrast between them
Obama felt HC should go to state department that are little/no significance; there was
special envoy for Iraq and Afghanistan
Its basic function: threat of the use of force and in this regard, America is prepared for conventional war
o War between organized and mechanized military forces
o Unconventional war = nuclear war
Increasingly been applied since the end of Cold War to insurgencies
General tradition: America maintained a small core of officers trained in WestPoint and Annapolis; relied
on citizens militia: this meant that throughout American history that while the commander in Chief stayed
Commander in Chief, he had no military to command
o Exception: US Marine Corpsprovide security for American embassies; the marine corps
developed superiority over military
Throughout the 19th century, America had a department of war which was only active during periods of
war which oversaw the army and navy
The Air Force emerged only after WWII; attached to the navy; became a separate branch of the military
o 4 Branches: Army, Marine, Air Force, Navy
What threat is the military defending against that justifies outlaying of resources
o Official budget: $700B; applied to missions in Afghanistan which are in addition to basic funding of
the military;
o When this issue was debated, Sen. Bird criticized the Bush admin for suspending 1.5B monthly;
Rumsfeld said it was 3.5B to go to Iraq
Among forms of military spending: NASA
It’s a society within a society in such because of American military; became disconnected after Vietnam
War; one of the issues was that America lost it because of lack of support from domestic population
o The Vietnam war was fought on the basis of a draft; Vietnam didn’t turn out as policymakers did
anticipate it
Those who sign up voluntarily come from lower-class backgrounds that allow them to pay for college
o Means of upward mobility
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