POL326Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Muammar Gaddafi, Hutu, Non-Aligned Movement

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26 Aug 2019
USFP Towards Europe Lecture
The Americans are expanding its role in Africa significantly: this is located in Germany
o The Americans adopted as a “lily pad model”: Americans didn’t establish bases, but small ones that
could be used to mobilize troops in regions should crises arise
Americans aren’t involved in Africa because of European dominance, especially France
o There’s been more competition in France and the United State
o Began in Rwandan conflict
Hutu dominated Rwanda in ’94 whose military was trained by the French
Americans had relationships with Uganda and Chad
Ugandan government dominated over the Tutsi tribe;
French government had relationship with Zaire (now Congo)
Rwandan genocide became the first African World War;
o Since these clashes between French and American interests, there’s evidence to suggest that
they’re in large cooperation towards Africa
o Libyan intervention
Under Axis of Evil, though not explicitly by Bush43
Gaddafi’s overthrow was motivated by French interests, which were because of various
schemes in terms of Sarkozy’s ties with North Africa
Gaddafi challenged American interests in controlling Africa
Northern Africa maintains currency regulated by France; almost all of the militaries are
heavily trained and have close connections with the French military
Main reason: to introduce African Dinar; certainly, would’ve made Libya a hegemon
East Asia
US develops a hub and spokes system: focused on states occupied by Japan and seen as possible areas of
expansion; designed to stabilize western economies and prevent subversion to communism
In Japan, all of them had to accept a basic deal: imposing on a country a semi-sovereign foreign policy
o They could only pursue policy that doesn’t counter American interests
Philippines and Indonesia: in both cases, Americans feared for the expansion of communism
o Their means of countering communist influence was through economic development
o Americans governed the Philippines primarily through its access of the military and access of the
Marcos family
The United States viewed India as the other countries in
Non-alignment movement under Nehru: maintaining a non-pacifist foreign policy
Producing regime change in India was hard because of the entrenched nature in the congress party
India wasn’t a relatively close ally
United States developed adversaries with Pakistan
o Population is 90% Muslim
o Called upon the Indian state to protect the status of Indian territory
o While India mostly prevailed, it left Kashmir mostly occupied
o India had developed
o Pakistan became a crucial component in the ouster of afghan government
o This was a major blow to American foreign policy; allowed Pakistanis to concentrate its forces on
Eastern India
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