POL326Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Hegemony, Preventive War, Marshall Plan

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26 Aug 2019
School
Course
USFP Western Europe
Review
A straight out turn from mercantilism is impossible between US and China
o The worst thing from a capitalist economy and having drastic regulations is uncertainty
o If you don’t know what tariffs you face, you can’t calculate your costs and determine its profit
o This has drastic consequences:
If Iran deal is decertified, a NK deal with the US is impossible: the appointment of Bolton is thus worrisome
Western Europe
It’s of historical importance; American foreign policy has been focused on its relationship with W. Europe
o European powers were only of greatest relevance to Americans
Morgenthau: American policy in 19th century was educated as European counterparts with Oxford and
Cambridge universities (share the same worldview)
o This is fairly consistent with the principles of realism
o If you look at the substance of foreign policy, you look at the rational nature of self-interest
o America had to focus on Western Europe; securing American
o Preventing any European power from projecting any further power
This was when napoleon yearned to become hegemon
Haiti was the most profitable colony in Western hemisphere
o WWI and WWII: while Americans were frank in their foreign policy moves during 19th century, he
argues in 20th century, W. Wilson did all the right things for the wrong reasons
In WWI, Germany was the dominant side that w/o American intervention, it might’ve
projected itself as a hegemonic force
WWI began with general satisfaction that Europe seems to divide itself and to maintain its
neutrality to throw its side to the allies; outcome wasn’t absolutely certain
Historians argue that the Germans didn’t earn more money than the Americans
Hitler expected at the outset that Britain and Americans would side with him in taking out
the USSR, but he miscalculated
Their animosity towards Russia would’ve pointed in this direction; realists argued that
alliance formed between Britain, France and Russia could only be explained in realism
Britain and France had nothing in common with each other; what united the latter states
was their fear of Germany
o By the end of WWII, Germany was thoroughly defeated; the rest of Europe was occupied by it
The destruction of Europe was far more severe than previous wars
The alliance between US and USSR was made against Germany
With the defeat of Germany and Japan, a new international environment would emerge
The system that emerged would cause a confrontation between communists/capitalists
o The rapid restoration of W. Europe as an ally of America
o Americans faced enormous problems in bringing a post-war order favorable to itself
o Germany was thrust into the depression by the Americans, which created revolutionary forces in
Germany through strengthening communists and the Nazis
Hitler came to power in 1933 since the centrist parties threw their support behind Nazis
Right wing solutions were based on the social order
By the time Nazis were defeated, the Nazis were thoroughly discredited because of their
horrendous record of the holocaust
Consequently, the idea of a Western Europe was imminent; it wasn’t really realistic; they
lost 25M of their citizens (it was a political threat)
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Marshall Plan
America was a champion of democracy, high standards of living, cultural freedoms
o Allowed for the victory of the parties with the United States in the first elections
o In Italy and Germany, the CIA took part in creating Christian democracy
Such was an attempt to distance conservative forces from fascism through associating
parties with religious institutions
Created further plans for European economic integration
o Sure, Germany could become a powerful economy, but one that couldn’t challenge Americans
o Western Europe as a whole is roughly equivalent to Americans
o It’s roughly equivalent to America in its economic size; a reunified Europe is a challenge to
American dominance
o Hoffman: European integration was key in allowing Germany to re-emerge as an industrial power
Germany was a key to the overall power; it was a hardline steel power
Such would become enormous threat to Britain and France
It’s closely tied to its neighbors; free trade started with coal and steel for the reason that
energy and steel were considered to make war machines
It prevented military establishments that could threaten each other
NATO
Prevented European from developing policies different from US: NATO emerged
NATO was made to protect itself from threat of USSR that’d invade Germany
o Defense from such threat required arming Germany
o French and British felt that re-arming Germany would be problematic; not arming Germany would
make an open invitation for the USSR
o By having Germany tied with NATO, Germany wasn’t particularly threatened
Such served in the interests of the US; US was in favor of economic integration
o Special Relationships: US with UK and Germany
Surprisingly not with France, however relations soured in WWI
Americans allowed Europeans to do the heavy-lifting before Germans were finally defeated
WWII: considerable resentment towards Americans relatively late
Stalin begged to open a Western front to go against the Germans
1989
No one knew the USSR would collapse; looked at history somewhat backwards
o Signs emerged beyond the iron curtain; these signs began with members of Warsaw pact
o West German passports and were integrated in West German society
Signified the USSR was no longer able to constrain their own allies
A united Germany at the center of Warsaw pact and NATO would be instability in Europe
o Germany must be closely associated with its
Why did NATO ultimately expand?
o Considering Russian hostilities towards the west is raising risk of a new Cold War
o We must understand what happened in Germany
The border between East/West Germany dissolved; East German banks became more
bankrupt for they never functioned in the capitalist economy
In order to prevent Russia from integrating E. European states, Germany became a NATO
Clinton USFP and collapse of USSR
Clinton admin developed a far-reaching foreign policy with regards to nuclear capacity of USSR
o The chief worry amongst western observers was that it’d undermine defense
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