POL326Y Lecture June 3.docx

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14 Apr 2014
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June 3/2013
US Military
Changing roles of the military
After math of cold war
oThe Weinberger/Powell Doctrine
Argues that future uses of the US military would need to meet 6 basic criteria
Any military involvement needed to be in a region within vital interest to the US
oWould need to be declared conflict (the support of US government)
Supported by congress
Have clearly defined political and military objectives
Relationship between the forces committed objectives would have to be
continuously re-evaluated.
Support of public/congress needs to be ensured before the full commitment of the
Military intervention would need to be the last resort
Produced under George HW Bush government
Did Iraq and Afghanistan fulfill these requirements? Probably not
oUS intervention in Libya
Also did not meet these criteria
Rested on US resolution to protect civilians
oSince invasions of Afghanistan and Pakistan a large part of those operations has been
Outsourcing is not new to the US military
Outsourcing of combat activity
The US has hired private contractors (Blackwater, etc.)
They hire elite forces that have withdrawn from the US military
oAlso recruited in other places around the world- Latin America, etc.
oIncreasingly US occupations include many of these professional warriors to
make military intervention much easier.
Who are they accountable to?
Can they be held accountable by US authorities?
Main reason why these forces are being used is because the US does
not have enough soldiers to meet its requirements
Probably couldn’t meet those requirements without imposing a
oThe US is increasingly dependent of a military that is understaffed
oDepends on high technology in various contexts where this technology is not
entirely suited to the needs of the military
Also a means of replacing labor (foot soldiers) with machinery
Intelligence Services
Easton vs. Schmitt
Opened government, check and balances vs. the needs of security- secrecy and efficiency
These clash to a great extent
oProminent member of the intelligence community in the US
oMost controversial and most well known
oCIA is not the only or the largest intelligence agency in the US
oThe US has at least 16 intelligence agencies
oIntelligence= information
oHaving accurate information about international developments, the states, etc. is a vital
component to any states ability to protect themselves
oDevelopment of capacities to develop such intelligence operations
oOSS (office of strategic services)
CIA grew out of this office
OSS was crucially involved in getting information during WWII of threats to the US
Cryptology, etc. breaking of the “nigma” code of Nazi Germany
oCIA is only partially involved in cryptology, surveillance, eavesdropping, etc.
oThe biggest intelligence agency within the US is the NSA (No Such Agency/National
Security Agency) created in 1952
NSA since 1970’s has been required to get warrants for any eavesdropping activity
on Americans
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)
Acknowledged claim by NSA that eavesdropping was by necessity
Needed to act in secret to gain access to peoples communications
FISA created a court that would allow the NSA to do so without having to go
though regular court proceedings for warrants
oCould provide NSA with warrants within 24 hours
oBreaking of codes
oSIGNIT (Signals Intelligence)
All have employed large #’s of people
Expanding ability to engage in eavesdropping, etc.
Creating a ‘super computer’ to increase abilities
oNational Recognizance Office (NRO)
Photographic intelligence
Traditionally supplied by spy planes
Now supplied by surveillance drones
oDefense Intelligence Agency
Capacity to duplicate the capacity of other intelligence agencies
Further continuation of the overall process
Each of the branches of the defense department has their own intelligence agencies
Intelligence organizations of various military branches
The state department- bureau of intelligence and research
Much of the rest of the intelligence capacity of the US emerged from this
Bureau of criminal investigation
The Red Scare
Rounding up of communists after the communist revolution
After WWI and in 1920s
After establishment of FBI became better known in 1920’s and 1930’s of
their role in going after organized crime
In this context the FBI developed its responsibility during prohibition, the
mafia, etc.
The FBI is of interest in foreign policy because in modern Europe the FBI has been
involved in rounding up communists but also in the realm of terrorism
Intelligence is only one part of 4 divisions within the CIA
Other three are
o1. Administration
o2. Director of Operations (the national clandestine services)
Each intelligence agencies are bureaucracies with their own self-interests, funding
goals, etc.
Need to prove ones self useful
Providing decision makers with information that appears to be useful to them
Problem of stove-piping
oIndividual pieces of intelligence tend to not go though processes
embedded but make way straight from the discoverers to the people
that make decisions by passing many other important players
Office of special plans
oProduces intelligence that lead to speech by Collin Powell to UN
Cherry picking
Choosing reports that are most relevant to the policy people are trying to
This explains why intelligence has been a dismal failure in the US
Beginning of 1989
oNot a single agency of the US government had the vaguest clue that
the soviet union was about to collapse
oThe intended purpose was to gather as much info on the soviets as
oThis shows the failures within the system
o9/11 is another example of how information can be false/misleading
or misunderstood
oIntelligence failures of 9/11 and many conspiracies lead to the
creation of the office of homeland security