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Lecture 5

POL469H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Evaporation, Food Security, Maya Civilization


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL469H1
Professor
M.Isaac
Lecture
5

Page:
of 2
1
Idsb02- Development and Environment
Tuesday Feb 7th 2012
Last week
Cell theory: Hadley, ferrel, polar
Climate change and future projections (vulnerable regions)
Different environments
Mitigation and adaptation
REDD, Kyoto Protocol, Copenhagen etc.
ITCZ shifts (Drought in the Sahel)
This week! WATER:
Be able to describe regional climates from atmospheric patterns
We want to relate the above to the hydrological cycles and patterns
Key components of the water balance:
Evaporation Sumer salt contamination; water movement up through soil profile
Transpiration comes off plants
Condensation
Precipitation rain!
Infiltration
Percolation
Run-off: erosion (water erosion mostly some wind)
AET actual evapotranspiration (limited off water)
PET potential evapotranspiration (about energy- may not happen as water is limited)
The balance of these fluxes allows us to predict how much water there is
Equatorial hydrology high precipitation and PET=AET because there is more water than energy
water isn’t limited! In breaking the Sod reading the soil was eleuvial- these are present from
the waterways and this is the large discharge from drainage basins
Be able to tell her why soil is so susceptible to erosion!
Semi-arid Hydrology: slide
Water availability in Semi-arid regions:
Mid latitude hydrology: slide
Variable seasonally in hydrology - picture
The water table, groundwater, and surface water know these terms and the differences
between them
Soil zone phenomenon is salinization; major impact of over irrigation- major issue especially in
areas of high evapotranspiration
Drip irrigation very precise irrigation at the base of the plant doesn’t lose a lot of water. This
can help combat salinization
Irrigation uses 60% of groundwater resources
2
Mexico city is sitting on a major aquifer which has been drawn out for a very long time; the
result is they are sinking
Is this surprising that the four countries of China India USA and Pakistan have the highest
irrigation?
they are all in the STHPZ; and all have very large populations
Water management quantity and quality
Confined aquifers-
Unconfined aquifers- percolated through soil moisture etc.
Unconfined aquifers are open to surface waters and can be easily contaminated
Water scarcity related to inputs and outputs (outputs are greater than inputs)
Midterm! Next week;
Bring id
One hour in class short answer
Multiple choice
True and false
What do you need to know?
4 chapters of the Ronald Wright book
Readings from the course reader all the readings up to the deforestation reading
Rapa Nui
Sumer and Salinization
Mayan Civilization
Roman Empire
All the think about… sections of the lecture slides!
Sustainable development and the Lee paper
Kuznets curve
Soil erosion, properties, structure, stability, hydrology, CEC, food security, tropical soils,
temperate soil and comparability, solutions
Cell theory, hurricanes and monsoon etc.
Hydrological cycles, regional hydrology AET PET, equatorial mid latitude etc. regions, irrigation,
water management