POL469H1 Lecture Notes - Plant Nutrition, Fiscal Policy, Runaway Train
IDSB02- Development and the Environment
April 3rd 2011 – Week 12
Exam: cumulative but more weighted on the second half
Multiple choice/TF/ short answer/long answer – MUCH longer for the final compared to midterm
(x2) – breakdown of marks relative to the midterm
What is development
o An evolving term
o Economic growth
o Human development: quality of life, life expectancy and literacy- social, political,
Kuznet curve, sustainability, soil, climate, water, AET PET of these climates
Won’t ask definition of soil etc. but will need to apply this to final
What do we know so far about tropical rainforests?
Where are they located?
And what do they grow on?
Soils= low fertility, highly weathered, acidic, low organic matter
Climate = ITCZ, unstable zone with high precipitation
Why so much biodiversity in the rainforests?
Why is biodiversity so important?
Why does deforestation occur?
Conversion of land to agriculture etc.
War and civil unrest etc.
Brazil as an example
Skole et. Al
Tropical deforestation has a large influence on hydrology, climate patterns etc.
Alternatives to deforestation and wood products?
Non-timber forest products
No clear definition but not wood!
Products benefits and services may come
Proximate and Ultimate causes of degradation in semi-arid environments
What was going on?
Colonial Eurocentric narrative
o Desertification is happening
Derived from the experiences in the dust bowl
Reynolds et al. 07
Dryland development paradigm
Convention to combat desertification
Drylands and development – what are the development approaches?
What are the constraints to sustainable livlihoods in drylands? And how have people adapted to
Maintainance of traditional lifestyles
Community based resource management – Sen’s freedoms *** exam Q
Is this a good idea
Agriculture for development
Plant nutrition – fertility CEC
Previous fallow system – now fertilizers because increased population growth and demand
Green revolution – hybrid technology, irrigation, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, GMO
High yielding varieties
Impacts of conventional/intensive agriculture – environmental limits?
Dichotomy of conventional and organic foods
Vitousek et al
In sub Saharan Africa the initial challenge to provide more nutrients…
Export conventional agriculture as an avenue to food security and development?
African farmers still use almost no fertilizers
Only 4% of cropland has been improved with irrigation…
What about the doubly green revolution or agroecological?
Suggests polyculture systems
Higher ecosystem services: classification by function – this is related to PES (Payment for ecosystem
Four ecosystem services
Current urbanization patterns
Migration – push/pull factors
Issues of third world urban ecology
Case study: Mexico city
Water supply main issue to first arise
Secondly air pollution – the location of Mexico city exacerbates this
What can be done?
Wetland environments and human adaptations
Important because significant % live on coasts and wetland environment
Determinants of productivity
Environmental services from wetlands **
Threats to wetland
Highland and development – high populations living there
Causes of change
Consequences of change in highland environment
Know where they are, what is happening, the threats and consequences