- Modern latin american history begins with the independence movement in the early 1800s
- What are the legacies of colonialism in Latin America?
- Christian Faith
- Multi-ethnic region and population
- Caste hierarchies with risidual cultural life in the subtle orm of bias and preference
- At the point of contact spanish colonizers recognizes similarities in the complex social
structures of the amerindians and their own and exploited this by absorbing some of the
amerindian elite in the the apex of spanish civilization.
- The amerindian elite were co-operative with the spanish and so were used to exact tribute
from lower status amerindians.
- this was a form of indirect rule
- Amerindians owned the country side in spanish america with whites scattered amoung them in
small towns in estates.
- in Brazil however whites were concentrated in a few port towns most notably rio de janniero.
- West europeans were a minority in a population of millions of coloured people.
- miscengenation is deemed by the authors to have not only been inevitable but encouraged
due to the absence of a substantive female european population. (9:1 odds of West european
men to west european women)
- Spaniards would marry and produce children with amerindian nobility in order to produce
pacification from the ruled or those being encroached upon.
- Africans used as slaves in the home were called “domestics”
- Those born of mixed race often moved away from work and plantation and worked rather as
wage labourers or artisans. They lived a hostile existence which necessitated an agressive
ethos for survival. they would also become vagrants in large numbers where it is believed the
negative stereotypes for mixed race people being drunkers and beggars as a whole were likely
- the collective culture of the amerindian played against them as skilled labour was needed in
the agricultural sector of the new world economy. this void would be filled eventually by the
mixed race peoples who had less of a collectivist culture. this led to their “inclusion into the
white mans world” as the authors have it.
- population reached stabilization in the first half of the 1700s for the first time since the
epidemics of disease that arose from contact.
- iberian colonial society was not a replica of iberian society