Events in europe (french revolution) undermined spanish authority 1807-1808: temporary ousting of monarchs. Once fernando was back in power, colonies were much more radical: limited powers of the church, commercio libre. Emerging commercial class in latin america that wanted to trade. Under the impact of 18th century enlightenment; ideas of liberty, freedom and nationalism began to enter into latin america. Haiti"s path to independence: slave-led revolution 1791, bottom-up revolution, may 1791 granted citizenship to wealthy free people of colour in haiti. Thus, creoles became disgruntled, and tensions flared into full-fledged revolution in august 1791. Spanish america"s path to independence: top-down, creole-led wars, 1742-1782: era of andean insurrection. Before dying: i will be back, and i will be millions : father miguel hidalgo of mexico (1810) Brazil"s path to independence: by royal proclamation, portuguese crown left in brazil, and dom pedro, son of dom joao, declared brazil"s independence. Power vacuum left by the spanish crown was filled by the caudillo.