POL371H1 Lecture Notes - Majority Rule, Double Majority, Charlottown

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25 Apr 2012

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Trajectory of Quebec Nationalism
1. Identity
2. Constitutional Landmarks (7)
3. Historical Landmarks (9)
4. Ideological Evolution (3)
A good question for our test based on the last class about regionalism:
- 5 waves of immigration to Canada
1. Quebecois think of themselves as only Quebecois (31%)
-Canadian and Quebecois = less than 20%
- Canadian first: 7%
- 1% only think of themselves as Canadian
Referendum in 1980 and 1995 on sovereignty-association.
-In 1980 the vote was 60 to 40.
-Quebecois friend says the political climate is not good for secession.
2. Constitutional Landmarks
Quebec tended to see confederation as a solemn pact between two distinct cultures. There was an understanding that each
side would have a veto on any unilateral changes. Because the French Canadians have this view, this meant stressing group
rights defined by language, culture, tradition
English Canadians had a diff view of confed. were more wary of group rights, saw it more as equal provinces, individual
provinces, provincial rights, equality of individuals
English believed in democracy to solve problems, French view was having a grand legal design, a constitution with abstract
social goals, comprehensive, definitive, personal rights…
1759 and 1959 two most important years for French Cans.
1759 = defeat on plains of Abraham.
1959 = death of Maurice Duplessis. Was the leader of the Union National, conservative ideology. The quiet revolution was
unleashed in the 1960’s.
a) Royal proclamation (1763) Direct product of treaty of Paris, ended war between Britain and France, gave up its territories in
Canada to the British. Now that the Brits were in charge of Northern part of British North Amer. The king issued a royal
It meant the end of New France. Provided for a representative legislature but it wasn’t acted upon because at the time of the
conquest there were only about 600 anglos and under British law only protestants could vote and be appointed to government
positions. Having a leg. assembly where only 600 people could vote didn’t make sense.
Wiseman thinks there were about 70 000 French Canadians in Quebec. Now there’s millions.
At proclamation, there were 1.5 million British North Americans living in North America, so French Cans made up half a percent
of the population.
Now they make up 2 percent.
Under the royal proc. the Brits were now getting uncomfy with representative assemblies because they saw they American
colonies were becoming troublesome.
Official policy of the Brits was assimilation. The Brits needed the French in case there was a revolt against them in the more
southerly colonies so in 1774 they passed the Quebec act. First piece of legislature that applies to Canada, everything before
was under the royal crown.
This was passed by the British parliament, extended the boundaries of Quebec (all lands between Ohio and Mississippi rivers)
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