Recovery from GLF
Urban residents were entitled to food using tickets etc…Rural people who could not afford such a high
expense lifestyle was forced to return to countryside. Policies were meant to stop the flow of rural to
Dan Wei (work unit) system
o Housing/work unit
o Sense of identity
o Socialization with fellow colleagues.
o Iron rice bowlwork for state enterprise and it is lifetime employment covered with
o Rural people could not join the Dan Wei system as it was only for urban people.
Hukou (residence registration) system
o The system binds a person to the place of birth and it is very difficult to move your
household registration to somewhere else.
o Every residence in China had to be registered/designated as rural or urban Hukou.
o Rural were not allowed to live in the city. How about migrant workers? (in coastal areas)
o During Mao’s time, there was strict enforcement of Hukou.
Urban residents get a range of benefits. They worked for Dan Wei and had
benefits whereas Rural did not have the same benefits.
o Nowadays, you can apply for temporary resident permit. (if you are rural to work).
However, that does not entitle you the same benefits that urban workers have.
o A large number of children would stay rural and then parents would go urban. (the state
does not pay for children’s education)
o Highly discriminatory system: two systems (rich and poor)
o After liberalization, the lives of urban residents had a better lifestyle even though speed
of progress hasn’t caught up.
o These rural citizens were considered as “inferior” and were not considered proper
Chinese. (ironic b/c the CCP was created based off of the support of these rural
Decollectivization of agriculture in some places
Increased Political Tensions
De-stalinization policies by Khrushchev
o Abandoning communism. Mao became obsessed with the idea of stopping economic
enthusiasm from Lin Biao
Lin Baio, head of the PLA (people liberation army)
o In the 1960s, there was an ideological call for egalitarianism, class struggle and calls to
resist US, Soviet etc… Ernie Tam
o Mao relied on PLA to achieve his political goal
o Being a skillful political further won Mao’s trust by implementing large indoctrination of
Mao’s thoughts in a Little red book.
o Learn from Comrade Lei Feing campaign launched by Mao, to indoctrinate the youth to
follow his footsteps (cultural icon)
Mao’s wife Jian Qing
BY 1965, economy recovered from the GLF but the political atmosphere still remained tense. There was
still ambitious people, like Lin Biao and Jian Qing who undermined colleagues.
How did the Cultural Revolution unfold?
Two periods (1965-68) [Red Guard], 1968-1978 (second period)…January 1965Mao spoke vaguely of
the need of Cultural Revolution headed by Beijing mayor, Peng Zhen.
The play “Hai Rui dismissed from office”
o January 1965Mao spoke vaguely of the need of Cultural Revolution headed by Beijing
mayor, Peng Zhen.
o The play portrayed the purge of rightist officer in Ming Dynasty.
o The purge of rightist officer by an ill informed emperor. The script had criticized Mao for
his purging of Marshal Peng.
o Mao decided to purge Liu Shaoqi, Woo, and Peng…which eventually eroded the CCP
leadership. (Liu Shaoqi was supposed to be heir.
Accused Peng of obstructing the communist movement.
It marked the start of the Cultural Revolution.
Two line struggle between radicals and moderates? Elites and non elites? Peasants vs. landlord?
A CR group set up to guide Cultural Revolution
o Consisted of Jian Qing and other radical members of the group to guide the revolution
and assumed most of the party’s powers.
o Became a political class struggle
Nie Yuanzi posted “big character posters” (dazibao) on Beijing U campus.
o IN 1966, he posted posters on the campus walls denouncing the university president for
suppressing criticism against the play Hai Rui.
o He was in support of Mao.
Mao endorsed Nie’s actions. Rebel student groups organized.
o Had the professor’s comments broadcasted and Mao also created Red guard movement
Comprised of High school and university students (14-18)and were political activists Ernie Tam
o Total believers in PARTY TEACHINGS. Central part of belief: through widespread
commitment on the part of the masses, China could be remade into a prosperous and
politically pure society.
o Through their enthusiasm were to serve as catalysts for mobilizing the masses and they
were supposed to be vital link between party teachings (seen as truth) and the
implementation of it at the grass roots level.
o Link between theory and implementation of older teachings
Worker Peasant (good) background
o First red guards to emerge
o Poor urban worker or peasant
o Under class in the pre-1949 regime.
o However, during the cultural revolution, they were seen as people who came from a
o Second group of red guards.
o This group was set up to protect themselves from attacks by Peasant worker groups
o Were under attack and as a result they had to come together to form another Red
“middle class” background
o Middle class meaning in between good and bad class
o Good class background (poor background from peasant), bad class (sons/daughters of
landlords and capitalists)
Groups frequently locked in battle
o These three groups fought against each other and to add to the confusion, they all
called themselves Red Guard
o They were competing with other groups as to who was “more red”
Victims: intellectuals: children of former landlords and capitalists.
o Intellectuals: teachers, professors, writers, bureaucrats as well as those from bad
Manifestation of social tension between different segments of society
o During Cultural Revolution what used to be the underprivileged class that required
social status, they disappeared and instead empowered. (they were allowed to beat
Acquired social status and po