Sep 17 2013
The Republican Era and Communist Rise to Power
19 Cen late Ching period
- By 19 cen. China was a weak country not living up to its own ideals
- British and opium
- Lin Zexu and burning opium
- Opium war and national humiliation
-British paid for Chinese goods with Opium. Addiction became serious problem due to
British and dampened health.
Lin Zexu burning opium in Canton
-Banned opium trade, seized all opium and flushed out to sea. This enraged British and
caused a war, the Opium War (Ching Dynasty suffered defeat 1939-1942).
-Hong Kong given to Britain as concession (unequal treaty between British and Ching
-Opium war and national humiliation
Overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and Warlordism
- Sun Yatsen founded Tongmenghui
- later Kuomintang (KMT)
- 1911 Xinhai Revolution helped overthrow the Qing Dynasty
- Abolished gentry’s class. Chaos. Warlordism. Sun’s “Three Principles of the
- Chiang Kai-shek succeeded Sun
- Soul-searching and attempted reforms:
- Tognzhi restoration (deemed largely a failure)
- Kang Youwei
After Meiji restoration, Japan was able to defeat China in 1894-1895 (sino-japanese
-Group of reformers headed by Kang, sought to restart Confucianism and proposed
some reforms such as: examination system (for those who wanted to be an official),
establishment of bureau for agriculture
-Opposition from Emperor began +imperial gov’t= reforms not successful.
-Confucianism is very much a cultural tradition
-Studied in Hawaii and learned English,
-Tongm. Sought support from overseas Chinese to overthrow the Imperial gov’t.
-Revolution motivated by anger at corruption from Ching Dynasty. -Abolished tradition examination system, undermined basis of gentry class.
- China at the time was very much agrarian and poor society. After 1911 revolution
was Warlordism (referred to as sheet of loose sand)
-At the time, whoever controlled Beijing was given prestige, however warlord system
disastrous for commerce (no trading happening due to warlords who are in power and
-Sun founded Kuomintang
-His legitimacy largely came from Ching Dynasty= 3 principles: nationalism, sovereignty,
livelihood (most important is nationalism)
-After fall of Ching Dynasty, used nationalism as opposition to formal imperialism. When
he died however, left us the Kuomintang party.
-Chiang Succeeded Sun, even though a loyal supporter of Sun, Chiang little knowledge
of foreign language etc.
-KMT controlled Beijing in 1928 and became legitimate government. Had to give
warlords authority over provincial areas to appease, which weakened authority of
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Communist Rise to Power
CCP (Chinese Communist Party)
- CCP rose May 4 1919.Imperialist student lead movement, mass movement,
Protested the treaty (awarded Japan a former province of China)
- Then there was a national boycott of Japanese goods. Initially began as a
patriotic outburst against foreign imperialists and warlords.
- Political establishment was identified with china’s failure with the modern era.
- Soviet Union helped formation of CCP by providing advice on revolutionary
politics and through financial and military aid. CCP founded in 1921
- CCP members never systematically studied Marxism. But Marxism and
Communism appealed to Chinese at the time due to its potential to overthrow
- CCP began to mobilize the proletariat (Marxism) but the problem= proletariat
class was very small.
- 1923, CCP formed alliance with KMT due to Communist party members being
killed due to clashes with warlord
- KMT was at the time recognized as a party that rep. a wide political spectrum.
- However there were deep seated mistrust between KMT and CCP. 1927 the
Green Gang slaughtered many communist (or anyone sympathetic to