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Lec 2 Sep 17 2013.doc

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Political Science
Lynette Ong

Sep 17 2013 JPA331 Lecture 2 The Republican Era and Communist Rise to Power th 19 Cen late Ching period - By 19 cen. China was a weak country not living up to its own ideals - British and opium - Lin Zexu and burning opium - Opium war and national humiliation -British paid for Chinese goods with Opium. Addiction became serious problem due to British and dampened health. Lin Zexu burning opium in Canton -Banned opium trade, seized all opium and flushed out to sea. This enraged British and caused a war, the Opium War (Ching Dynasty suffered defeat 1939-1942). -Hong Kong given to Britain as concession (unequal treaty between British and Ching Dynasty) -Opium war and national humiliation Overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and Warlordism - Sun Yatsen founded Tongmenghui - later Kuomintang (KMT) - 1911 Xinhai Revolution helped overthrow the Qing Dynasty - Abolished gentry’s class. Chaos. Warlordism. Sun’s “Three Principles of the People” - Chiang Kai-shek succeeded Sun - Soul-searching and attempted reforms: - Tognzhi restoration (deemed largely a failure) - Kang Youwei After Meiji restoration, Japan was able to defeat China in 1894-1895 (sino-japanese war) -Group of reformers headed by Kang, sought to restart Confucianism and proposed some reforms such as: examination system (for those who wanted to be an official), establishment of bureau for agriculture -Opposition from Emperor began +imperial gov’t= reforms not successful. -Confucianism is very much a cultural tradition Sun Yatsen -Studied in Hawaii and learned English, -Tongm. Sought support from overseas Chinese to overthrow the Imperial gov’t. -Revolution motivated by anger at corruption from Ching Dynasty. -Abolished tradition examination system, undermined basis of gentry class. - China at the time was very much agrarian and poor society. After 1911 revolution was Warlordism (referred to as sheet of loose sand) -At the time, whoever controlled Beijing was given prestige, however warlord system disastrous for commerce (no trading happening due to warlords who are in power and constant conflict. -Sun founded Kuomintang -His legitimacy largely came from Ching Dynasty= 3 principles: nationalism, sovereignty, livelihood (most important is nationalism) -After fall of Ching Dynasty, used nationalism as opposition to formal imperialism. When he died however, left us the Kuomintang party. -Chiang Succeeded Sun, even though a loyal supporter of Sun, Chiang little knowledge of foreign language etc. -KMT controlled Beijing in 1928 and became legitimate government. Had to give warlords authority over provincial areas to appease, which weakened authority of central KMT. -647 237 1288 647 531 9521 Communist Rise to Power CCP (Chinese Communist Party) - CCP rose May 4 1919.Imperialist student lead movement, mass movement, Protested the treaty (awarded Japan a former province of China) - Then there was a national boycott of Japanese goods. Initially began as a patriotic outburst against foreign imperialists and warlords. - Political establishment was identified with china’s failure with the modern era. - Soviet Union helped formation of CCP by providing advice on revolutionary politics and through financial and military aid. CCP founded in 1921 - CCP members never systematically studied Marxism. But Marxism and Communism appealed to Chinese at the time due to its potential to overthrow imperialist power. - CCP began to mobilize the proletariat (Marxism) but the problem= proletariat class was very small. - 1923, CCP formed alliance with KMT due to Communist party members being killed due to clashes with warlord - KMT was at the time recognized as a party that rep. a wide political spectrum. - However there were deep seated mistrust between KMT and CCP. 1927 the Green Gang  slaughtered many communist (or anyone sympathetic to communis
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