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Political Science
Vera Achvarina

Week One Nayan Chanda,  Provides some historical examples of GG to show that GG is not entirely new  E.g. land trade & Mongol empire, Hanseatic League,  However GG has always lagged behind technology  Difference: no surrender of sovereignty, no compromise for vital economic interests, less acute dangers  Future prospects for GG include multilateralism John Ikenberry, ”  Power is shifting from North and West to South and East  Arguments that as power shifts, liberalism will disappear as rising powers put forth their own ideas about world order especially as they are still developing with colonial pasts and different problems than advanced capitalist countries  Argues instead that liberal order is not disappearing and emerging powers merely want a place in it with more authority  Two projects have shaped world order: Westphalian which addressed realist problems and liberalism. Address the problems of Hobbes to get the opportunities of Locke  Rising states have deep interests in open rules based system as it gives them more access to more markets  No alternative model, reassurance Christopher Chase-Dunn & Kirk S. Lawrence,  Challenges of 21 century: global inequalities, ecological degradation, failed system of GG after US hegemonic decline  Overall income has increased by so has inequality partly due to colonial exploitation and neocolonialism: Problematic because of institutionalization of perceptions about equality  Democratic deficit in global institutions and the UN and IFIs are increasingly seen as ineffective  Argue a world revolution is coming (clustered rebellions)  Democratic Peace? Since 2011 USA= unilateral action Week Two Jon Pevehouse, Timothy Nordstrom and Kevin Warnke,  IGO: formal entity, has states as members, possess a permanent indication of institutionalization  Must begin with a Treaty signed by Member states  Growth of number of IGOs have been steady since WWII and then slowed down near the end of the 1990s  Post 1965 state to IGO ratio increased  Decolonization resulted in a number of new IGOs  Regional IGOs: all members from a particular geographic region, Universal: no geographic restrictions, Cross-regional: inter-regional such as NATO as well as certain social and political organizations (NAM)  Cross-regional have grown dramatically as cross regional issues grow: environment, trade, monetary  Thomas G. Weiss, Tatiana Carayannis and Richard Jolly  1500 NGO participants at UN, consultants, experts, scholars, independent commissions that engage in advocacy, research, policy analysis, idea dissemination  Inside-outsiders who are at liberty to make bold suggestions and critiques that insiders cannot  Profit organizations and media are not included  Networks frame debate on issues, justify, provider alternatives Week Three Axel Dreher, Jan-Egbert Sturm, and James Vreeland  Institutional designs can facilitate control by the Great Powers  USA and G7 control most of votes at IMF and also care about SC voting, less powerful states that vote on SC can lend then votes to Great Powers to give legitimacy  SC membership increases probability of receiving IMF programs (I.e. governments use their influence in one institution to gain leverage over another)  Developing nations may value IMF loans more than SC votes and vote in favour of a Great Power in order for them to use their leverage at IMF to grant a loan  Why use IMF? Cost benefits (only lend fraction of aid through IMF), leverage (loan isn’t upfront), political cover Kyle Beardsley and Holger Schmidt,  IGOs are delegated responsibility to assist in providing public goods, but this is dependent upon autonomy in their actions  Great powers try to restrict autonomy of IGOs (such as the UN by using veto powers on SC) and hijack their agendas  Intervention behaviour is shaped by parochial interests (E.g. alliances, coil wealth, colonial ties, p5 involvement, polarity, crisis security) and peace and security interests  UN needs to support from other members to survive, not just P5, and to ignore other members would erode legitimacy  P5 interests in conflict shape the kind of UN response however, and particularly key is the relationship between P5 members at the time. Cases that pit P5 against each other have lower UN involvement  Close relation between crisis severity and UN involvement (more severe, more UN involvement) and UN does act in accordance with its Charter (though P5 interests do shape action) Ruben Mendez,  Financial crisis within UN as donor nations fall short on donating  Regular budget (administrative) and is collected from member states according to global income, peacekeeping, extrabudetary  Peacekeeping budget from member states (SC pays more, with P5 paying most and then groups B-D)  Peacekeeping costs are rising  Social and Development programs are voluntary contributions  Problems: payments are usually late, cash flow problems, no penalties for late payments, large countries withhold money (financial sabotage to keep UN weak)  Peacekeeping budget problems: Too many missions, small countries don’t want to pay, P5 pay most so they don’t want to authorize, UN does not reimburse on time, UN scaling down operations  Reforms: Interest payments on late payments, schedule of payments, increasing total budget, new formulas to USA not largest contributor, unified peacekeeping budget, publicized list of delinquents  International taxation on foreign exchanges, tax arms transfers and military expenditures, charge uses in global commons Week Four William Drozdiak,  Proposes bringing together NATO and EU in order to US and EU to remain powerful in comparison to Asia  US cannot be a member of the EU, but it shouldn’t stop cooperation between teo  EU and NATO membership as a reward in Balkan states Anders Fogh Rasmussen,  Concerns regarding NATOs capability to respond to Libya conflict, however, they were unfounded  Truths, security concerns are unpredictable, enablers and security/intelligence are key to all missions, NATO allies do not lack military capabilities  Even though Europe spends less on military than USA, still have top militaries  Military might still matters in geopolitics, new military powers are entering the field (China, India), NATO remains the main engine of global security Amitav Acharya,  Claims ASEAN is one of the most durable examples of regional multilateralism and acts as a hub for other regional organizations in Asia  Accomplishments: Most durable regional organization, no members war with each other, instrumental in bringing Vietnam-Cambodia conflict to close, end of Cold War provided a platform to build other regional institutions
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