Origins of Modern World Economy
- Twin "Revolutions" 16th - 19th Centuries, agricultural and industrial
- Agricultural Revolution: May be hyperbole to use the "word revolution" here
- Originates in late 18th century England
- More appropriately designated to a revolution
- Example: Raw cotton processed in British factories
- 1760: 2.5 million pounds
- 1787: 22 million pounds
- 1837: 366 million pounds
- Amount of Iron processed into steel
- 1788: 68,000 tons
- 1806 250,000 tons
- 1830: 678,000 tons
- Produced huge changes in domestic consumption
- Luxuries came to be seen and mere "decencies" and decencies came to be seen a necessities
- Distribution highly uneven but now creation of middle class had risen from manual labour to
professional or entrepreneurial status
- 1) Capacity to produce surplus
- 2) Increasing complexity of division of labour
- 3) New forms of social consciousness
- Demise of Royal Absolutism
- Victory of Parliament over Kings
- Selection of leaders by election
- Rise of political parties
- Universal rights without reference to clas
- Need to accommodate... Karl Marx
- How to analyze a society?
- What does one look for first?
- Queens and Kings?
- Dominant Ideas?
- What Kind of food do they eat? Alcohol they drink?
- "The philosophers have only interpreted the world, n various ways; the point is to change it." - Marx,
Thesis on Feuerbach
- Feuerbach and Critique of German idealism (Hegel)
- Materialism: What is God?
- God didn't make man, man made God.
- But Marx: this doesn't go far enough.
- Why do we need religion? Injustice. you must go to the material causes.
Critique of Hegel: Historical Materialism
- Hegel: Consciousness creates society
- Marx disagrees: consciousness does not create being, "being creates consciousness."
- Materialist conception of history
- "Revolutions are the locomotive of history." - Marx, Capital
- Slave, Feudal, Capitalist, Socialist/Communist Modes of production
- History moves from one stage to the next.
Materialist Conception of History
- Humans make their own me