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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Origins of Modern World Economy - Twin "Revolutions" 16th - 19th Centuries, agricultural and industrial - Agricultural Revolution: May be hyperbole to use the "word revolution" here Industrial Revolution - Originates in late 18th century England - More appropriately designated to a revolution - Example: Raw cotton processed in British factories - 1760: 2.5 million pounds - 1787: 22 million pounds - 1837: 366 million pounds - Amount of Iron processed into steel - 1788: 68,000 tons - 1806 250,000 tons - 1830: 678,000 tons - Produced huge changes in domestic consumption Consequences - Luxuries came to be seen and mere "decencies" and decencies came to be seen a necessities - Distribution highly uneven but now creation of middle class had risen from manual labour to professional or entrepreneurial status Social Results - 1) Capacity to produce surplus - 2) Increasing complexity of division of labour - 3) New forms of social consciousness Political Consequences - Demise of Royal Absolutism - Victory of Parliament over Kings - Selection of leaders by election - Rise of political parties - Universal rights without reference to clas - Need to accommodate... Karl Marx - How to analyze a society? - What does one look for first? - Queens and Kings? - Dominant Ideas? - What Kind of food do they eat? Alcohol they drink? - "The philosophers have only interpreted the world, n various ways; the point is to change it." - Marx, Thesis on Feuerbach - Feuerbach and Critique of German idealism (Hegel) - Materialism: What is God? - God didn't make man, man made God. - But Marx: this doesn't go far enough. - Why do we need religion? Injustice. you must go to the material causes. Critique of Hegel: Historical Materialism - Hegel: Consciousness creates society - Marx disagrees: consciousness does not create being, "being creates consciousness." - Materialist conception of history - "Revolutions are the locomotive of history." - Marx, Capital - Slave, Feudal, Capitalist, Socialist/Communist Modes of production - History moves from one stage to the next. Materialist Conception of History - Humans make their own me
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