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Lecture

Oct 15 Lecture.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL101Y1
Professor
Jeffrey Kopstein
Semester
Fall

Description
Oct 15 Lecture Communism and Fascism  no holocaust-> no modern perception of human rights Liberalism and its Crisis  Long 29 century is peak of liberalism’s appeal  Liberal institutions develop even where social basis Is not obviously present  Had parliaments that sounded like the West, yet they didn’t function that way (Hungary, Poland)  Social basis that exists in the West does not exist in those places yet they persist  Eventually liberal democracies that were ‘faking’ went into crisis  Hungary good example: through WWII, you had elections where they were competitive (cities), country side it was very swayed (corrupt rules); an example of how liberalism functioned in the third world; eastern part of European continent was European ‘third world”; extreme rich versus peasants (countryside); people started questioning liberalism and if it actually works Liberalism and the Working Class  extension of the franchise  working class, women, minority groups (this being the West)  Rise of Social Democracy in Western Europe. Evolutionary socialism and reconciliation with liberal democracy: electoral socialism  Socialism makes way from revolutionary to evolutionary idea (in West)  That becomes the story of socialism in the West ^\ What about the revolution?  Lenin: revolutionary movement under conditions of authoritarianism- Russia  To be a communist-> almost a cult-> full time revolutionary activity-> you did not play a role you held a status  Left on their own, workers will never make a revolution  Conspiracy  Workers only capable of “trade union consciousness” (they want more money and less work)  Need “party” to bring them the truth: what this means for Marxism  Revolution will occur because the communist party will do it for them Marxism and Economic Backwarness  Lenin trying to make revolution at the most economically backward time in Europe  Illiteracy rates extremely high (81% in 1915, etc)  Russia- one of most backward countries in Europe  Working class revolution, with small working class  1917: World War and Revolution  Lenin never gave up on Revolution-> German government helped send Lenin back to Russia to end war (against Germany)  1917 in Russia, Lenin comes, Russia going into complete chaos  Tzar steps down, parliament with a number of parties, only Lenin said lets get out of the war  Lenin and highly organized group seized power World Revolution or World Power  Russia was a weak link-> Revolution would spread everywhere  World revolution fails to materialize  From insurrectionism to statism- supporting communism means supporting the Soviet Union  What it means to be the communist is to support the communist state-> Soviet Russia  But what is communism or socialism? What will this kind of economy look like:  Lenin: “Communism= Soviet party + electrification” (everything modern)  But still does not solve the problem  They argue over entire 1920s, “let peasants get rich” -> increasingly capitalist agriculture, how did this lead to rapid industrialization anyways? Peasant want to be peasants not steel workers Stalin: terror and progress  industrialization  collectivization  terror and secret police  purges and famine…  not even Russian, he speaks with a Georgian accent, Stalin not his real name
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