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Lecture 6


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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Political Science, Lecture 6 October 17 , 2011 Communism and Fascism  it’s a liberal democratic world, institutional ethos is the same  Roman Catholic church is identical, in the way the surface is performed Liberalism andthts Crisis -the long 19 century is peak of liberalism’s appeal, countries that were non- liberal, wanted to be liberal -Hungarian’s, in the beginning, pretending to be liberal democrats -Liberal institutions develop even where social basis is not obviously present Liberalism and the Working Class -extension of the franchise -Rise of Social democracy in Western Europe. Evolutionary socialism and reconciliation with liberal democracy: electoral socialism most socialist in the West have embraced liberal democracy capitalism could change by evolution, it could change slowly as it doesn’t need a revolution Marxist- revolution, what about the revolution? Russia doesn’t have a constitution, Czar Nicholas II has control power, secret police, gets rid of opposition Lenin of Russia, evolutionary socialism can’t work in Russia, we don’t have a parliament Lenin: revolutionary movement under conditions of authoritarianism- Russia  you have to be conspiratorial workers only capable of “trade union consciousness” left on own, there is no revolution, there needs to be leadership Lenin sees this and knows that workers won’t make a revolution, only if there is consciousness from the outside  need “party” to bring them the truth what means in Marxism Marxism and Economic Backwardness not an urbanized country, high illiteracy rates -Russia- one of the most backward countries in Europe -Working class revolution, with small working class -1917: World War and Revolution. Without WWI there would have been no revolution reasons: in poor countries, the military is used to control situations within the country as well as outside World Revolution or World Power World revolution fails to materialize From insurrectionism to statism- supporting communism means supporting the Soviet Union leaders argued that it was a working class society, there was no bourgeoisie [they got rid of the business men] but what is communism or socialism? What will this kind of economy look like:  The state owns everything. Lenin: “Communism = Soviet [council] power + electrification.” But still does not solve the problem. Lenin dies in 1924 Stalinism: terror and progress. -industrialization -collectivization -terror and secret police -purges and famine  he was Georgian, not really Russian. He was given the job of placing people  Who is going to be Lenin’s successor? Lenin’s testament- naming great communist leaders They [Italy] felt that they had to industrialize fast, Peasants considered potatoes? Forced Industrialization: Stalin and the Soviet government imposing this: the result was the first 5 year plan succeeded and it was industrialized. Tremendous costs, everyone knew Stalin was not as smart as Lenin but he was as ruthless. Socialist realism Purges Recently declassified data on ONE purge from 1936-38 (even a conservative estimate suggests Stalin initiated at least seven purges)
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