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Global Governance Promise and Challenges

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science

POL101 March 14 , 2011 Global Governance Promise and Challenges Global governance is a new concept in political science, prior to this only spoke of governments Global Governance and the International System Anarchic international system Realism • Absence of an international government • Key actors are the nation-states that are at the core of the international system, most importantly they act on their self-interests • Concerned with relative power • Zero sums gain: one state’s gain is another state’s loss • Realists assume the international system is anarchic, & thus prone to conflict League of Nations & collective security • Aggressive actions from states are illegal • Aggressive state punished by the others • System based on punishment, it was supposed to work on deterrence; however, it did not work Neoliberal institutionalism • Emerged out of WWII, like Realism in the sense that it accepts the notion that there is no world government (presume the international system is anarchic) • Interdependence: Unlike Realists who tend to be pessimistic, positive view is based on the realities of complex interdependence, because of this complex interdependence states cooperate in ways so as to ensure that all states benefit (assumption is that cooperation leads to a net benefit) • Positive sum • Functionalism • Rules & norms: states by cooperating can devise rules of the game, if they cant establish rules, they can establish normative expectations International organization & regimes • Bretton Woods: example of an international organization or regime in which states agreed to fix their exchange rates • EMU (European Monetary Union): set of rules by which all participating states agree to certain rules • Examples of rules & norms that govern the ways in which states behave UN System of States: • To maintain international peace & security, & to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention & removal of threats to the peace • To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights & self-determinations of peoples • To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character • To be a centre for harmonizing… Global Risks • Collective/commons (climate change) • Borderless world (global health) • Uncertainty (technology) Ex. cyber security • Human security (genocide) New global risks & global governance Transnational Governance • Transnational • Rules of the game WTO • Goals & Targets Kyoto Accord • Deliberative Forums G8 & G20 (where states can come up with compromises, & come up with rules) Features of Global Governance 1. Absence of global GOVERNMENT state sovereignty is still key 2. Collective fate & commons (financial crisis) intended to address common problems (collective interests) 3. Functional specialization (WHO filled with health experts, health policy makers creation of international health regulations (IHR: what states have to do in times of global health crises) 4. Participatory (UN General assembly) all states are stakeholders, because all states are sovereign they ought to be treated equally 5. Enlightened sovereignty (living beyond the Realist notion of sovereign state self-interests) not about the “nasty” sovereignty that was seen in the 19th century, mirrors embedded Liberalism or the Key
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