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Civil Military Relations and Democracy

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Political Science

POL101 Dec. 6/2010 Civil Military Relations and Democracy About power, but ultimately obedience: important thing about politics Obedience more of a problem in civil military relations All of the ability to project violence; take it away from ourselves and give it to our troops (also given to the police functions) Also given to the military – they don’t try to grab more power As democracies we take all the power of society & separate it Sources of power: tend to think that money gives you power, & this is true “He who controls the goal, controls the sword,” however it’s often “he who controls the sword, controls the goal” (problem of civil military relations) For realists the “world is a bad neighbourhood at 2am,” it’s a world even if the remaining democracies have won; it’s still a world of states, no overall global order Or the order is one of error – no one to impose the order, or there are multiple sources of the imposition of that order Importance of having an army: Almost all the states in the world have a strong army th For ex. Poland didn’t exist in the 18 century because it got taken over (and chopped up) this was because the Polish nobility failed to vote for taxes to raise the army that would allow for them to defend themselves If you fail to build an army, you risk losing your state Even if you have an army, the question is what kind of army? Modern states- the transition from feudal army (armies that were largely made up of & led by the aristocracy) true in Europe & Japan The story of modern states is really the story of raising mass armies of citizenry (not simply the elite who would fight each other) If you could get the whole mass of the population behind you, you can be a very dangerous country Rise of modern democracy & large armies go together – when Napoleon conquers Europe, he conquers it with a mass army made up of the citizenry However, when you have a mass army should you have a professionalized army (one in which the citizenry volunteers & gets paid) OR a draft army? For most of the history of Europe – once you have the creation of mass armies they evolve to become draft armies Most countries that have mass armies; still have the draft (excl. Canada & US) This has profound implications: the way that countries gather together & control force, b/c of politics In democracies, having an army is like having a police force Once you have a professional army as opposed to a draft, you’re more likely to got to war The issue with draft armies is that with everyone voting, politicians are less likely to take the nation to war; almost all military commands in the West prefer a professional to a draft army (professional you get to use) Problem of the Guardians Who guards the guards? What is the proper mode of control of the military? Can’t guard themselves, not enough to have people simply guarding the guards For ex. In the Soviet Union: In each unit they had a commanding officer, and 2 nd in command was a communist officer –idea was that they were always afraid What is the mode of control of civilians over the military? Huntington: subjective versus objective 1954 Huntington was dealing with the fact that it became apparent to Americans for the first time in history that it was going to have a very large, permanent, well-financed standing military because it took on the role of global policeman Americans had a tradition of militia (now have a bad reputation because they are associated with tea-parties): Historically militia were decentralized people who were armed & who were nd supposed to protect the freedom of the community (i.e. 2 amendment – the right to bear arms; actually says “a well regulated militia being necessary for the liberty of the people, congress cannot make a law infringing on the right to bear arms, idea that the US would have armed citizens) First time that the idea that the US would have a citizen army emerges; Huntington uses 2 models to describe how the army would be kept from trying to grab power: Subjective (commitment to democracy): Based on the way people think, want a citizenry that’s used to cycling in and out of the military (sometimes play the function of doctor, lawyer, soldier, student etc.) commitment to democracy is what matters (faith and belief and commitment to democracy controls them) COMMITMENT TO DEMOCRACY IS WHAT MATTERS. (I.e. if you’re from a fascist country, you’re committed to fascism) Whatever system you have is the subjective commitment of the soldiers Model in the modern world was of the citizen soldier (i.e. the Swiss are neutral but armed) this was a movement away from the feudal model Model of control that depends on the way people think; you want an educated soldier that is committed to democracy if you’re living in a democratic country (contact between military life and the citizenry) Coup 2010: reserved officer training corps; idea is that you take people educated in universities and have them enter the military as officers for 2/3 years, idea here is that you’re not separating the officer core from the citizenry – they in fact come from the citizenry & have a commitment to democracy Objective (one we live with today): Rather than having a citizenry that are also soldiers, there is a clear separation between life and career paths (professional soldiers), don’t worry about them training to be democrats but rather be trained for the protection of the citizenry Commitment is to obey what the civilians tell them to do, not to get involved in
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