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Lecture 20

POL101Y1 Lecture 20: Immigration Notes

8 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Hansen Jung

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Immigration 200 million immigrants worldwide - 3% of population Defining Immigration Immigration: movement from one country to another for at least 1 year 1. Voluntary: skilled and low-skilled labourers, highly educated service sector workers, family 2. Forced: expelled or fleeing from war, persecution, economic depression, or the environment • Weberian ideal types - the distinction between Voluntary and Forced are not perfectly clear (ex: if you leave a country because of poverty, it it forced or voluntary?) Settler Countries (US, Canada and Australia) Characteristics **positively selective 1. Immigration was integral to their founding and development (Encourage it) • UK migrants came to transplant a culture, a cluster of institutions, and legislative practices • First immigration experience = Positive folklore on immigration (created a receptive cultural context for future migrants) • US: look at immigrants with rose-tinted glasses pointed backwards (in the past, immigrants were good; today, they are horrible) 2. Interactions with migrants are well institutionalized - experienced in dealing with them • Confidence in the government’s ability to manage migration - explicit laws, policies, and administrative structures that regulate immigration processes 3. All experienced a similar trajectory of immigration i. 19th Century: Rapid immigration from Europe (hardly any boarder control) ii. Post-WWI - 1960s: Closing the doors on non-whites/non-northern Europeans • All the countries has a ‘white policy’, butAustralia made it explicit iii. 1960s - Onwards: Opening immigration fromAfrica, Central/LatinAmerica, South and EastAsia (Changed countries’demographics) Immigration Models United States Canada and Australia Immigration policy is driven by the principle of family reunion - core of the world’s integration regime - 50,000/yr Type of Odd Case Positive Selection Migration • Formal immigration = negative (based • Based on “wanted” and managed system on family immigration - unskilled) migration - you get what you want • Economy attracts large # of skilled • Emphasis on education and skill workers and students (best universities - 700,000 students - 40% studying eng and sci; 20% business) Process for Employer sponsorship or Green Card Points System (head of house) permanent Based on education, languages, work migration • Economic Migrants: Enter the US experience, and youth with a Visa (investor visa if you invest $500,000, H1B visa for high-skilled workers), and after 6 years you can 1. Selecting people for particular jobs get your employer to sponsor you for • Advantage: immediate integration into permanent residency job market (better education = better job) • Student Migrants: enter as a • Disadvantage: jobs may vanish (ex: oil) student, find a job, then secure a OR jobs may be too specific (PhD in sponsorship (2.5 yrs) Russian literature) **With a Green card you can sponsor 2. Selecting people with highest levels of family members human capital (general set of skills) • Advantage: if they lose their job, they can find another Problems Illegal Immigration Brain Waste (especially in Canada) Around 11 million Too many overqualified professionals • Addiction to cheap/low-skilled labour (doctors, PhD students) - forced to go to low-skilled jobs Highly debated • Restricted access to certain programs 1. migrants contribute to society (law and med school) to keep wages 2. legalization = award for criminality - high encourage more illegals • Very market oriented - some universities are better than others Obama’s executive order: legalize 5 million illegal migrants (supreme court ruled against it) • began issuing presidential permits Post-War Migration Countries (Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Austria) Immigration Models ** negatively selective 1. Colonial (France, Britain, Netherlands): open citizenship and migration regimes 2. Guest-worker (Germany,Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands): countries offered temporary work permits, which brought in Greeks, Italians, Yugoslavians and Turkish Problems with Guest-Workers It was a permanent migration scheme: Mostly non-EuropeanAND the never returned home • Increase skepticism about the state’s ability to control and manage immigrants • Didn’t leave because of democratic constraints - it was against the constitution • Dilemmas over the integration of these populations - increase intolerance of migrants Result: more public conflict and violence than in settler countries (rise in the extreme right) Client Politics Essential aspect in immigration politics - followed the liberal democratic model • Lasted until at least 1973 - the recession caused suspension of recruitment The recession High unemployment = hard to see the economic contributions of migrants Government failed to halt or control immigration - continued to increaseAND migrants stayed • Increase intolerance of migrants (France’s attempt to ban the muslim head scarves) • Rise in extremist parties - went against anti populist norm (no client politics) • laws were not sufficiently institutionalized to withstand pressures from extremists Client politics —> interest group politics (benefits and costs are concentrated) • tightly restrictionist stance - cracking down on illegal immigration Integration (cash) vs Assimilation (culture) Definiton Integration: understood in economic, political and social terms • Does that migrant group disappear in economic statistics or do they participate in politics and economy just as much? • Canada: Most immigrants do as well or better than Canadians Assimilation: full absorption of the new country’s culture (in extreme cases, religion conversion - secularization) • Basic liberal idea - “no matter what race/religion, you can become one of us” • Anti-liberal: “limits of your race, culture, religion are the limits of your world” • Canada: Why don’t we abolish Roman Catholic school funding (anti-liberal idea)? • Some lawyers claim it it’s in the constitution so we cannot change it • Actually, the Roman Catholics vote - making it an electoral issue - stopping their funding would be political suici
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