Sovereignty and Intervention
What makes a sovereign country?
Under what conditions is it justified to intervene in someone’s country?
Rwanda massacre: Hutus and Tutsis 800 000 people died.
Bosnia: youglsavie wants its independence. 1993-1995: serbes preventing Y from
getting independence. 1995: NATO and US intervened.
Kosovo: Y du Sud, les musulmants. Today: semi independent state, Nato intervened
in 1999 without security council approval (prob, illegal)
International Commission on Sovereignty and Intervention, 2001: purpose to join
legitimacy and legality together.
R2P: Responsibility to Protect, all sovereign states have the responsibility to protect
their own civilians. (2005), approved by general assembly.
The responsibility to Protect (states must act) versus the Right to Intervene (they
can intervene if they choose to)
Responsibility is a duty, focuses on the civilians.
Right is a choice, rights held by states.
Sovereignty in the UN Charter:
-States cannot intervene in the internal affairs of other states
Inviolability: right not to be interfered with.
-Security Council unique body in charge in deciding when that right can be
infringed, can authorize the use of force to maintain or restore security.
Security Council doesn’t represent 2/3 of the world (US, France, Uk, China, Russia)
Sovereignty as Inviolability and Control vs Sovereignty as Responsibility
Sovereignty as responsibility: u can run ur own state but don’t start killing your own
Human Security or National Security? different priorities
-national: national interest, first duty of the state is to protect the state form external
-Human: evaluate hum security by : food, health, protection…
When can intervention be Justified? -ethnic cleansing, actual or apprehended (wanting to intervene militarily before the
genocide happens, looking for signs that genocide might happen, ex: Rwanda: radio
calling Tutsis as cockroaches)
-Genocide, actual or apprehended: killing a collective group based on their ethnicity
or religion, because they are considered as a threat.
-deliberate famine (Ukraine)
Do these justify military intervention? No they don’t according to the ICSI
Human rights Abuses
Weapons of mass Destruction
Ex: Libya: 3000 died under Kaddafi before intervention
How much is too much?
Military only intervenes when big number of people died.
However we intervened while it did not reach standard of when to intervene.
Do you have to be morally consistent to intervened in other countries; do you have
to have clean hands to intervene?
So no, because nothing would be done then
How do you decide? Just War Criteria
When do intervene