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Sovereignty and Intervention.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Joseph Wong

Sovereignty and Intervention What makes a sovereign country? Under what conditions is it justified to intervene in someone’s country? Ex: Syria Rwanda massacre: Hutus and Tutsis 800 000 people died. Bosnia: youglsavie wants its independence. 1993-1995: serbes preventing Y from getting independence. 1995: NATO and US intervened. Kosovo: Y du Sud, les musulmants. Today: semi independent state, Nato intervened in 1999 without security council approval (prob, illegal) International Commission on Sovereignty and Intervention, 2001: purpose to join legitimacy and legality together. R2P: Responsibility to Protect, all sovereign states have the responsibility to protect their own civilians. (2005), approved by general assembly. The responsibility to Protect (states must act) versus the Right to Intervene (they can intervene if they choose to) Responsibility is a duty, focuses on the civilians. Right is a choice, rights held by states.  language matters Sovereignty in the UN Charter: -States cannot intervene in the internal affairs of other states Inviolability: right not to be interfered with. -Security Council unique body in charge in deciding when that right can be infringed, can authorize the use of force to maintain or restore security. Security Council doesn’t represent 2/3 of the world (US, France, Uk, China, Russia) Sovereignty as Inviolability and Control vs Sovereignty as Responsibility Sovereignty as responsibility: u can run ur own state but don’t start killing your own people. Human Security or National Security?  different priorities -national: national interest, first duty of the state is to protect the state form external attack -Human: evaluate hum security by : food, health, protection… When can intervention be Justified? -ethnic cleansing, actual or apprehended (wanting to intervene militarily before the genocide happens, looking for signs that genocide might happen, ex: Rwanda: radio calling Tutsis as cockroaches) -widespread massacre -Genocide, actual or apprehended: killing a collective group based on their ethnicity or religion, because they are considered as a threat. -deliberate famine (Ukraine) Do these justify military intervention? No they don’t according to the ICSI Human rights Abuses Democratic overthrow Weapons of mass Destruction Environmental Disaster Ex: Libya: 3000 died under Kaddafi before intervention How much is too much? Military only intervenes when big number of people died. However we intervened while it did not reach standard of when to intervene. Do you have to be morally consistent to intervened in other countries; do you have to have clean hands to intervene? So no, because nothing would be done then How do you decide? Just War Criteria When do intervene -Right authority -Right Intention -Just Cause -Last Resort -Proportional Means -Reasonable Prospect
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