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POLB81 chapter 1,2,3.doc

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Political Science
Charles Hoffman

POLB81 Chapter 1 Introduction: - Global governance implies the need to make decisions collectively, given the rise of global problems such as terrorism - GG can develop among multilateral and democratic lines, or it can evolve into a more dictatorial or autocratic form - GG means different things to different people. To some it may mean a unified action against specific threats; for others it may simply be a framework for rules and norms - For some GG is nothing more than a contemporary way to refer to international institutions - For others it implies a change in the fundamental political units that rule the world, incorporating new forms of authority that recognize a technical complexity of a world characterised by economic integration - Others reject the idea of GG and think it’s a sinister plot to undermine their state and national autonomy Chapter 2 Emergence: - Realism came to be known as states trying to pursue their advantage at the cost of other states - The issue for realists is that there’s a relative advantage enjoyed by any state in comparison to other states - IGOS are subject to heated debates about their policies and operating procedures, especially among developing countries - IMF was established to smooth international adjustment in the balance of payments between countries. When a deficit occurred in a countries national accounts, the idea was that, rather than devalue its currency, a country could call the IMF to help it, avoiding political conflict and devaluation by other states - World Bank was to help Europe reconstruct after WW2, now assists developing countries to foster economic growth, increasingly putting conditions on loans - International law is the question of enforcement, law binds citizens who have no choice to obey or be subjected to punishment - Because there is no world government, governments have to agree to be bound by international law - International business corporations may also be considered key institutions of global governance in three ways 1- MNCs are highly consequential for everyday life in developed and developing countries 2- They are continuously involved in lobbying government for better regulation and government oversight of markets domestically and internationally 3- Regulation, or self-regulation is often undertaken by market agents themselves, business is increasingly governing many fields - GG is much more dependent on epistemic authority than international organization - GG legitimacy is much wider and less vulnerable to criticisms compared with international organization. If institutions lose their epistemic authority and can no longer serve to maintain GG, the problem can be defined as a technical one rather than one
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