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POLB81 Lec 3,4,5.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Charles Hoffman

Lecture 03 – Jan 21/13 Transnationalism: - Looking at broader set of GG and a broader set of dynamics - People usually immediately think of IGOs, but this is not all that goes on with transnationalism - Understand them through purpose, problems, tool of GG - purpose: dual purpose depending upon the type of actor or specific actor we’re looking at o some actors work to transform the system o others are working to do problem solving o World Wildlife Fund for example: look to influence how states and their organizations deal with the environment, not to overturn the state system, but to solve the problems using the existing tools of GG o Other NGOs in environmental politics are looking to transform the system itself and get away from global capitalism and radically transform the nature/society relationship o Purpose of problem solving transnational actors: 1- Affect other forms of government 2- Making rules themselves – acting as governors themselves o There are problems that are above the state, below, and between - Types I: o Transgovernmental  Informal gathering of government officials that work on policy  These can affect how other forms of government work o Private/Civil  Private actors trying to get public actors to change what they do – what we usually think of this term  Draw upon: • Public values – moral argument or representative argument • Threats of coercion • Economic clout • Expertise o Public/Private  Public sector is the government sector – international organizations, governments, actors that have public interests  Private sectors: NGOs, actors that have private interests o Illegal  Organizations that we would never condone, but they are definitely making rules and using methods that most think are inapprehensible  Both legal and illegal work across borders for their own interests Hegemonism - GG as part and parcel of Global Capitalism as the dominant set of rules that structure how the world works - GG is a system to maintain, enforce, and spread global capitalism - They say these people don’t see the real issue and problems of capitalism and what’s really going on is the increase exploitation of most people and maintain hierarchy and spread capitalism - Purpose of this perspective? 1- To uncover the system of exploitation a. Analyse the current system and explain how these bloc forces have come to influence the current system b. Rators: private actors that rate bonds i. Give a score/grade to different types of debt and investments. Essentially saying that bonds/debt a good bond rating means that you are more likely to pay back – can sell your bonds at a lower interest rate ii.Reinforcing a mechanism of capitalism - Enforces rules of capitalism – government is the problem, and all the forces that have been identified are a part of the capitalism system - To solve: speaking truth to power is one of their rules - Tools: activism and alternatives Feminism - GG as problem of and solution to patriarchy - Problems: o How the local and global are linked o How the public and private are linked - In some ways the problem is global governance and global capitalism - Inequalities are embodied - Patriarchy and capitalism embody GG - The day to day activities of GG institutions – what the World Bank is doing in development policies, what the IMF is doing for families, etc. - Tools: 1- analysis to uncover and see how the issue is problematic 2- they treat institutions as targets and agents of change 3- protest/activism Rejectionism - two variants of GG is dangerous o Fundamentalist (tea party, religious movements)  Consider outside influence to be the problem and seeking a purity within a community where GG does disrupt  They reject GG o Realist: they don’t believe in institutions, anarchic system, no overarching authority, security dilemma (can’t rely on GG to solve your problems, and leads to anarchy) What is the IMF if you look at GG through: - Institutionalism: stabilizing, problem solving mechanism o Example of state cooperation of sustainability - Transnationalism: regulators working on development, target - Hegemonism: an organization to encourage the spread of capitalism among states; encourages and promote global capitalism - Feminism: problem solving, regulating the monetary system in a way that perpetuates gender inequality Lecture 04 – Jan 28/2013 Global poverty and development - How so we understand poverty and development? o Low income = low standard of living – productivity o Problems/needs stop us from increasing productivity o Productivity becomes the problem of poverty so we need to find out how this can be overcome and why this is the case o Well accepted in international organizations but other sectors and academics and development would dispute everything that has been said about this o Your POV on the issue shapes how the development occurs o The problem of poverty and development is simply that most people do not have enough money - Aggregate and understand how development processes are happening at the international level - HD indicators – looks at economic and social indicators to show monetary and social problems such as education, basic necessities to life - Look at how national policies put countries on different trajectories through different instances of time - A countries success cannot be measure by only their level of income - Development can also be a global problem o Self-interest – development and political stability go hand in hand – want a stable world o Historical o Globalization and neoliberalism o Ideology – structural adjustment policies Causes of poverty and underdevelopment - Internal causes: o Government failings – corruption, bad policies, weak states [can’t do enough to set up policies for growth and promote human needs] o Rational decisions of the poor – being in a statement of poverty leads to a state of structure that’s hard to get out of [high birth rates – high infant mortality, higher support if more kids, cycle where its rational to have bigger families but it continues the cycle which leads to poverty and underdevelopment]  Slash and burn agriculture – bad but its fast and cheap – rational within the context in which case you cant do other forms of agriculture o The internal causes are less determinant than the external causes of underdevelopment - External causes o Capital/ labor mobility/immobility – when people are willing to move around for work  Capital is more mobile than money which creates problems for development • Investors can move where they get their products from easier than moving the people • Labour is immobile compared to capital so people are unable to move where
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