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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Seth Jaffe

KANT “PERPETUAL PEACE THEORY” 1. Purposive history reprise (cosmopolitanism) 2. Perpetual peace: preliminary articles, 1 to 6 3. Definitive ones: 1) Republican right; 2) international right; 3) cosmopolitan right 4. First supplement, nature’s guarantee: angels, devils, and institutional design 5. Morality v politics KANT AND MODERNITY OR MODERN THEORY - Walzer and Rawls are Kantians - Commitment to rights, inherent dignity of individuals - Kant: great theorist of rights - Hobbes: rooted in the self interest - Kant: moralist, different understanding of morality - Kant: the state is not justified as an interest bargain, this is how the state first comes about, but it is justified on grounds of our freedom - Unlike Walzer, who refuses to get to foundations, Kant is like Hobbes in that he wants to get down to the foundations PROGRESS: there is a progress toward “the better” - Change alone is not progress, because things can change for the worse - What does it mean progress towards something better - We are going somewhere, there is an end stage - Universal (human) history - Some of the less than social tendencies are driving the progress; two steps forward and one step back – but we are still going somewhere REASON LEADS TO FREEDOM, FREEDOM IS TIED TO DIGNITY - Related to enlightenment and reason - Kant thinks all creatures have perfect development (TELEOLOGY) what is the purpose of a thing? Of an acorn? Tree - Human beings are unique because they have reason and speech - Full flourishing of reason is the end - More reason  more morality  more rationality - This is a distinction KANT IS MORE DEMOCRATIC - The Greek view was more aristocratic - Kant: we all have the inherent capacity to develop our faculties - We are capable, but not all or even most are going to get there - Moving towards a place where more people are actualizing this capacity, we are getting better as the species because more people are using their reason - History is driven by UNSOCIAL SOCIABILITY – this is the back and forth - There is no tension, or no fundamental tension between politics and morality TENSION BETWEEN MORALITY AND POLITICS - PAY ATTENTION TO KANT’S REALISM - This is the use of people as means - Kant does not think that human beings are nice and all get along - Despite the tension, the situations is getting slowly getting better, worldly political order – why domestic peace - the situation is intolerable w/o it - The state is consistent with reason - Even if is not formed with right reasons in mind it can be justified by reason - REPUBLICAN POLITICAL ORDER – HUMAN BEINGS are learning - NATURE converging with reason and morality - Facilitation of process by identifying what reason demands - Nature is taking us where reason demands - Towards a federation of states – perpetual peace – can live as however we like - Arena of freedom is not moral – precondition of true morality - True morality is the choice to act for the right reason - Kingdom of end – no war - EXPANDING ZONE OF PEACE OR NOT? - INTERNATIONAL ORG AND INTERNATIONAL NGOS - Communication technologies, information and knowledge - GLOBALIZATION represents a techno driven binding of the world together and this ought to lead to peace - TRADE  NEEDS PEACE - Even though there is imperfectability, there are institutions which facilitate cooperation and these req foundational stability - There is a thickening of ties between states WHAT IS PERPETUAL PEACE? Reason is history and reason in reason why we are moving and why we should move - May be immoral means to get to moral ends - SOVEREIGNTY – weakening of it and strengthening of global ties GUIDE WHERE WE MIGHT BE GOING - The graveyard of freedom PRELIMINARY ARTICLES - How we might place ourselves in the place were peace might be achieved - 1) Goal of war is pace, goal of peace is peace - 2) Society of men, cannot be traded (like Walzer where land follows the will of the peopl
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