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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Harald Bathelt

Outline- locke Context- Born into middle class family, father attorney. Was able to send locke to prestigious school and lock went to oxford where he obtained a masters. He contemplated career in church but dropped that plan. He did a degree in medicine later on. He held various positions at Christ church college in oxford. Becomes interested in mechanical philosophy. He read natural philosophy and chemistry. In 1556, life turning event here he met lord Ashley the earl of shoxberry. Asked locke to work with him in London. Locke then had a change in his political views. Favors absolutist monarchy. He wrote two tracks on government. -locke in his assosiation with lord Ashley, writes an essay concerning toleration not confused with the letter concerning toleration. We then we a tolerant locke. Lord shaksberry charged with treason. During lockes time in exile, he wrote a letter concerning toleration, which was later published in England, in the aftermath of the glorious revolution. 3 letters were final letters on locke concerning toleration, which made him the poster boy on the idea of toleration. First letter concerning toleration (main concern)- indifferent things: religious ceremonies Three relationships examined: state and church/religion (Christianity) Relationship among churches- Christians among different churches and different sexes among christian More convinced of his argument when he met those group of people in Netherlands (remosntrants). Relationship of state and religions other than Christianity and non believers? Different religions and the practice of those religions Policy of toleration is the policy that is needed to address those questions- Locke Toleration is a policy and is the mark of a true Christian, one if not a true Christian If he is not tolerant. Characteristic mark of the true church is toleration. Has to be extended to everyone, that is the principle method of gospel. So towards all mankind and even those that are not christians. This is based on his readings of the gospels Charity begins at home- page 23 and 24- quote: “whether they do it out of friendship or kindness……they commit against the percepts of the gospel”. Page 25: “and to genuine reason of mankind…..seems monstrous of men to be so blind…in so clear a light”, it is useful to be tolerant so has an instrumental value to it Two primary justifications: 1. Religious justifications 2. Rational justifications- he uses scriptures and the interpretations of those scriptures – gospel and reason (simultaneous) The Hobbesian connection----trying to rationalize Christianity. Locke is doing the same thing. Hes continusly sayin theres inst much difference with what gospel is sayin and what reason demands us to. Relation between state and church/religion- separation and non-interference Central argument: the different purposes argument Can the civil magistrate impose its will on religious matters, Locke says no and talks about certain exceptions. Affairs of the state from affairs of religion: “to settle the just bounds that lie between one and the other”. Purposes of the state has a different purpose than that of religion. Meant to serve different ends and so needs to function differently. Takes us into the definition of what is a commonwealth (states or political community)- preserving or advancing their civil interests and is a society of men. Civil interests he defines as life, liberty, health and the position of outward things such as money and lands. Matters which pertains to worldly affairs. Civil magistrate is one that looks after the civil interests of man. Church is a voluntary society of men coming together to the public worshiping of god for the salvation of souls. Within this definition we can see the understanding of locke regarding the purpose of religion. Worshiping needed for the salvation of souls, an important means to attain salvation. That is the purpose of religion. So commonwealth and religion established to serve different purposes. Religion and church serves the spiritual interests/ the other worldly affairs. So argument that they should function separately, which is the central argument Three derivative arguments from central arguments/main arguments: Why state shiuld not be seen as the entity which should look after the salvation of souls, due to the authority of state. Where it comes from? – the people. So it is the contract and consent from which the state derives its authority from. First makes a religious point then goes into the contractual position. Authority of the state- P26- ‘ “because the care of souls… appears not that god has given such authority over one man”- has not commanded states to give authority to the care of souls. Very theological argument. Relates to jewish commonwealth, where there was an absolute theocracy where god was the legislator. Says from new testimont has a difference. No such thing as Christian of commonwealth. God has not given any individual the right to take care of others (individuals) nor to the authority of gov (what the gospel says). Contractual- locke thinks that no man can abandon the care of salvation to the fate of others. State doesn’t have the authority to take care of the souls of man Force versus persuasion- true religion requires persuasion of mind (inward). Power of the state consists of force. Persuasion is not the distinguishing feature of the state. The
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