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Political Science
Harald Bathelt

Context- Politics-crises of values in the late 1980s Political theory- between history of political thought nd value free political science Rawls- normative political theory, from a theory of justice to political liberation Rawls- doesn’t stress so much the relationship between public reason and religion The problem: legitimacy and stability- reasonable pluralism and constitutional liberal-democracy: political authority is 1- secular: separation of church and state, toleration 2- democratic: equal share of power Central problem of PL and religion 1- Legitimacy: reciprocity at reasonable acceptability 2- Stability- beyond modus vivendi How’s it possible for citizens of fate to endorse a democratic regime- requires all supporters share an understanding of political justice? 771- “our exercise of political power is proper”- reciprocity is about reasonable acceptability Endorsing a constitutional democracy is 1 st 2 – requires a form of public justification/ need to follow the laws public reason the idea- model of reasoning not an ideal not secular reason – not like reason of philosophers which goes down to justification of truth, features- --- a) origin: constitutional deliberative democracy- exchanging reason b) function: specifies the basic values defining the political relationship, is rel between state and citizens and citizens amongst themselves c) scope: 1. Fundamental political question: rights and liberties, justice 2. persons: public officials, citizens (duty of civility) d) content: political liberal conception of justice: no truth 1. basic structure 2. freestanding 3. liberal ideas (citizens, society) 4. core elements: list of basic rights and liberties, priority of them over understanding of the good, and measures where people can exercise their right public reasoning- a) reciprocity- specifies the political relationship in terms of what he says as civic friendship b) proviso c) public justification public reason and legitimacy – a) reasonable acceptability b) reasonable citizens c) reasonable political conception of justice- why? – because for rawls he thinks it’s the only way to guarantee reciprocity because it appeals to values that are shared. It is reasonable because it is articulated from premises, and the law is legitmate when fundamental rights and liberties where all gov officials act in that case, and citizens as well. So only when this happens does it constitute legitimate law, so they deliberate according to public reason (political reason that are shared). public reason excludes secular explanations tolerance is a fundamental value another element is that people agree to obey to the rule to constitutional democracy and its procedures, even if it somehow jeopardizes our political views. Secularism: toleration and public reason 1. legitimacy and stability - overlapping consensus allows for stability and legitimacy for the right reasons. 2. Separation church and state- problem of liberty/piety 3. Toleration and freedom and conscience- political basis for reciprocity 4. Religion and proviso- translation in terms of liberal political conception of justice – condition for religion, legitimacy and stability Habermas- context: politics- the return of religion Political theory: crtitical reconsideration of modernity (secularization, ‘narrow’, secularism) Habermas- renewed sensibility towards religion Normative political theory and epistemic requirements The problem: legitimacy in a post-secular society - post secular society: epistemological shift - constitutional democracy requires equal treatment of religious citizens in the public sphere: normative shift - legitimacy in a post secular society beyond modus Vivendi how can we reciprocate? Wants to go beyond model that renounces constitutional democracy criticism of Rawls--- proviso censors religion: loss of democratic potential - artificial division: person versus citizen: religion grounds socio-political evidence - uncritical response to pluralism (habermas): undue burden for religious citizens - PL (political liberalism) is uneffective of the epistemological conditions for endorsing public reason - PL might not be the right response to pluralism Cirtical secularism (post?) Legitimacy and neutrality = universally acceptable language- aganst modus vevindi Religion and institutional translation proviso - religious language - scope of translation - successful translation public reason revisited- cognitive pre-conditions -change in mentality: cooperative learning process- a) religious citizens= reflectivity- we can have on the one side an equality of cognitive burden, on the other hand it a way to work from within. b) secular citizens: open-mindedness, they have to be open to the fact that religion can teach us about moral content, also scular response to religion may not be the right one This is instrumental to reciprocity, because it is a two way process Post-metaphysical thinking – self-critical assessment of secular reason: 1. Agnostic but open 2. No scientific reductionism 3. Genealogy of reason Implications- Democracy and truth - PR as a contested concept Taylor secular age- looks into the question of what it means to live in a secular age. the secular age- the we is the we of the west/north atlantic world. And the claims that they live in a secular age. Rawls and Ademas are also talking about the west. Taylor argues that there are two candidates, hes goin to offer a third one. The first two- secularity 1: what is it? Focuses on common institutions and a practices of the society. The most obvious one is state, relationship between state and religion. The argument is that there was a time that state and was of a deriving of authority. Connected based on some adherence to god. This connection is that the modern democratic state no longer derives its authority from god or a particular religion. that religion is now pushed into the private sphere. Political society is seen of non-believers and believers. Taylor says “now we engage fully in politics without even encountering god. This kind is compatible with majority of people still believing in god. Second version – the focus is not on the relationship of state and other public instututions and religion but the very place and status of religion in society. Living in a secular age means living in an age where religion has declined, or vanishing. Raises a problem: in America they are very religious. Problem is that u cannot explain the us where society is predominantly religious. Doesn’t take into account the US, where you have secularity 1 but not necessarily secularity 2. Sec3- Focus on conditions of belief. He says ‘there was a tie when belief in god was unchallenged, unproblematic and unquestioned, to a time when religion is increasingly put under scrutiny’. Religion becomes one of the options among multiple options. That’s the crucial change and shift. Becomes one of the many options. In Muslims and in India, belief in god is not yet one of the options, but the default option. Conditions of belief has changed in the north atlantic world. Taylor argues that those who stick with sec 2 emphasize on belief itsle fnot the conditions of belief. Decline in Christian belief is cuz of the rise of other beliefs. US does come into relation. The whole context of understanding our whole moral, spritila and religious experience takes belief. He wants to shift the focus to different kinds of lived experience. Focus not on belief and un-beeif as ‘rival theories’, but on what its like to live as a believer or an unbeliever’. Three dimnesions of a li
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