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Political Science

Lectures 7/29/2013 12:51:00 AM Donald Schwartz – 339.323.5938 - Italy in 1860 became a Nation state almost by happen stance or mistake - 17 Contrada whose boundaries have not changed since 1879 (Sienna)  act like a family there when needed and fight the same with each other Communism – Gramsci  A man and leader that was eventually persecuted and tortured by Mussolini Sienna is very left wing  4 founding fathers of the Italian state o Garibaldi o Cavour o Victor Emmanuele II the first king of Italy o Mazzinni Good and bad government painting Lorenzetti (look it up) The origins of the nation lie in its ethnicity  Ethnicity  Nation What did Italy and the Italians inherit in 1860 as in its historical past that has helped construct their national identity 1890 – foreign policy and expansion policies and their effect on the region and its identity Term test (Monday)  define ethnicity  Nation building paths Palio oral report:  origins, preparation, historical, symbolism and symbols used (flags/statues), the role of religion. Identity and Politics Ethnicity  2 dimensional: o who we/I am and who I am in relation to others o also operates at a more general level, who I associate with and why I chose to surround myself with theses people and beliefs  Ethnicity becomes important when mobilization and collection is necessary  Becomes a basis for association, organization, and political action  Achieving goals through political or others types of action  Ethnicity and nation are about a certain type of identity that starts at the personal level and eventually crystalizes in the we and the they  Finding ourselves in relationship to others  How we are linked together as a family  Shared characteristics that give us a common interest o Markers and Boundaries as signals and guides 1789 is a very approximate date for the formation of Modern National Identity and serves for the basis of creation of states  Nation (state)  Ethnic communities reach a level of maturity that leads to national self determination  Structure of those states: o Can be determined by ethnic identity (elements of modern politics and identity)  Unitary state – possibly homogeneous in composition; In a state where the community has a dominant community and belief structure [Great Britain, France]  Federation – power is distributed to more then a single state  Switzerland and its linguistic separation and thus preservation of their identity is a great example o Dismemberment of states – the former USSR/Soviet Union o Also the opposite of the creation but can and does lead to the creation of new states o Using states to promote ethnic interest o Violence – ethnically directed violence; genocide, ethnic cleansing, internal colonialism o Minority activity – the purpose of asserting claims and rights and making claims against historical abuses, reciprocity o Policy initiatives – Human Rights, Media, education etc… Challenges to Italy Quote– “the fundamental and radical difficulty facing Italy is that it does not exist… the organism that we call people” What I believe are the three most important ethnic components:  Geography and proximity o Home land/ the mother-father land  Diction used to provoke emotion for the place of origin o Indivisible, territory is concrete the border lines can change but the basis of understanding is standard  Language – unity through communication and logistical advantages o Social structure and interaction o Ideas - innovation and mobilization o High Culture of society can be understood and learned by a wider range of society o Encode information for future generations for purposes of education and continuity  History o Preservation of the cultural structures and symbols o Identification of perseverance and passage to the present o Traditions and customs o Ethno-Historical o Historical Narrative resulting in the education of the historical representation of the region or ethnicity in question – The Dark period or the Golden Age o Ancestral o Policy based on historical events  Education  Religion o Shared religion and belief  Does not mean one umbrella religion  Customs  Morality o Influence on political structure and policy and education o Gender roles and treatment/ inclusion and exclusion o Consumption o Family law – birth control, abortion, structure, contour society and its behaviour o Secularism – there are communities that through their leadership that reject religion as their basis for their identity  Religion that has been replaced with ideology  Race / Racism o Biological category o Appearance can lead to behaviour and actions Lecture #2 Wednesday Field Trip information:  8am at Porta San Marco Via Francigena – the route through sienna that leads to the market place. Originally it was a path from Sienna to France that was also a pilgrimage route. Ends at the Porta Camilla Nation:  Community that is based on a shared set of ethnic features o There is no specific formula  Certain fundamental collective right of self determination National Self Determination (NSD)  Decisions relating to the peoples sovereignty over a certain distribution of land – decisions being: policy, cultural, participatory  Nation as distinct from a ethnic community – they have a collective right to NSD. Perceptions of the Nature of the NATION  Thomas Kuhn: Social Scientist – work on research methods and theory development as well as the changing scope and face of reality of information and evolution of „truths‟ . Revisions merge together with parts of the old dominate paradigm and what emerges is new perspective and paradigms  Conventional Wisdom of the Nature of the Nation: Primorialism o Ethnicity is an objective and a real aspect of our moral lives o Real in the sense that it derived from basic biological needs that people need to belong to something and identify with something larger then themselves o Real and tangible in the non rational sense o The concept of national identification is irrational, however created through human desire o The growth of a Nation can parallel the growth pattern of humans from child to independent adult How useful is the approach to understanding the growth of a nation:  The original founders of Sienna and its link to Rome lies in the 2 Son‟s of Romulus, who after they fled their father they stopped in Sienna  Also Sienna has been thought to be an „old age home‟ for the barbarians from Switzerland. This is not a very appealing story so they mythological story of Romulus‟s kids is more appealing and thus is generally accepted as the story of creation o The more appealing and popular the concept or the story of the establishment of the Nation the easier it is to mobilize the peoples of that nation.  The Nation is a social construct o Dependent on circumstances and agents o Not predetermined or logical emergence of the nation  Socio-economic circumstance participate in the creation of the nation o Ie: literacy, educational standards, linguistical  Instrumentalism o constructivists – more emphasis on agent or promoters of ethnicity o situationalist – based on timing and more organic development/creation of the nation; natural catalysts or human catalysts.  starts with the idea that the nation is a modern social construct. Modernization carries with it features of the construction of nationalism.  Secularization: emotional needs are not being satisfied by religious endeavors  modernization : based on institutions and their creation as a tool used to contour society into contributors and promoters of the nation  variations to instrumentalism : o Marxism approach: class based  Challenges the idea that the nation is or should be the overriding identifier of communities. Marx argues that the bougouise created the concept of the Nation and thus the nation acts in the interests of them. Emerges from capitalism o Feminist approach: men have dominated and dictated the concepts and guides of the nation and instrumentalism  This gives men an ongoing systemic advantage  Women‟s roles have been socially constructed by men  Women‟s roles in the nation have been constructed by men, and do so that it will support and continue to maintain their power  Submissive roles throughout the nation, political, social, economic, military etc… Ethno-Symbolism: Anthony Smith – trying to draw both revisionist theorems and traditional primodialism theories all together.  The modern nation cannot build itself from nothing and that everything must build on historical facts there must be a historical basis and resonance. Term Test  Define, describe, and interoperate the role of two major factors or features of ethnicity. 50%  Identify and describe the utility of the 4 approaches to Nationalism and ethnicity. 50% Smith: culture community and Territory 7/29/2013 12:51:00 AM Smith: culture community and Territory Approaches to Nationalism and ethnicity Perennialism: nations that are consistently and constantly being formed and dissolved on the basis of ethnic ties Instrumentalism: Post modernist : ethnies and nations are artifacts, constructs of cultural engineers who tailor pre existing mythologies and symbols and histories for their own ends Ethnic community: named human population of alleged common ancestry, shared memories, and elements of common culture with a link to a specific territory and a measure of solidarity Nation: named human population sharing a historic territory, common myths and historical memories, a mass public culture, a common economy and common legal rights and duties. The golden age can act as a rubric for solving contemporary problems From the first choseness implied both expansion and exclusion, cultural if not directly political A nation must posses its own individuality, a territory is essential to gain most aspects of national identity as well as ethnic nationalism You need a place of origin to have a sense of belonging which will evoke emptions and ties to common peoples Nationalist regimes have subsequently made use of mass public educational systems to create unity and contour their society Week#2 7/29/2013 12:51:00 AM History of Siena: “Siena the gothic dream” book on Siena  Built on three hills that come together  The wall that surrounds the city and the hill top location is ideal for protection and defense  The highest point is the Castle Beccio  The Duomo is the highest level point Origins:  Undetermined origin, there are some early historical records but they are inconclusive  Evidence of Roman influence and possible early settlement  Evidence of many cultures, whether they just passed through or set up temporary settlement is not determined  Poor foundation story thus the mythological recollection of the discovery by Romulous‟s sons  The loupa placed throughout the city is the symbolic representation of this  The roots of the city go back to pre human time Roman Rule:  Under the Roman leadership Siena struggled (back water)  In the mid to late middle ages it gained a political representation th that allowed for prosperity (12 century)  Moved away from direct religious influence post roman rule Monuments and Construction  mid 1200‟s the city made the collective decision to create the Duomo, designed and built by local artisans. It serves as a civic symbol of unity and collaboration  The campo serves as the epicenter of the city  Did you say all the materials came from the region?? 1260 Transistion  the Florentines attempt to concur Siena  the Siena army was not strong enough to defend. The political leadership at the time decided to take an offensive and attck with hopes of breaking the surge  Lucari symbolically handed the Keys to the city to the bishop to bless the city and protect the city (Madonna will protect us)  On the day of the battle there was a fogg that allowed the smaller and more agile Sineses army to succeed  This event stabilized Siena as a city state, and began with substantial political and socioeconomic stability Group of Nine  Merchants and landed mobility and excluded members of the professional class  Powerful families  Vast economic powers  Memorialized in the Campo with nine travertine lines  The families began to destabilize as a result of power ambitions Modern Siena  Missing towers o Symbols of status and protection Late 1300‟s  Siena calls upon Milano political representation to regain political and regional stability - the plague and the resulting collapse of the economy halted the creation of the giant Duomo 1555  Concurred by Florence with the support of the Spanish  Ruled by the Spanish Monarch for a few years  1557 Spain ran up a debt to Florence thus Siena was traded to Florence as a sort of debt parcel to neutralize the Spanish Debt Late 1790‟s  Napoleon and France invade and concur How have the Sinease retained a strong sense of who they are in terms of their historical origins??  Much of the answer lies in the renewal of interest and Siena‟s ability to maintain its history.  Two primary mechanisms o 1 - the Contrada and its representation and practice o 2 – Palio which constitutes a major collaborative event that occurs twice a year.It represents the alliances and hostility of the contrada‟s but also represents unity through a commonality of competition  Palio celebrate two separate events the victory in 1260 and the defeat of 1555 Presentations  Palio: o Origin and development o The governance, rules and procedures o The Parade o The symbols of the Palio o the Flags o Kacazzota – the ritual fights o The Carooccio o Role of Religion o Civic Components  Contrada (territorially based just like nations) o Origins and development o Contemporary structure, its roles and the relationships  Campo o Structure of the palazzo public o Floor of the campo*** o Tower and the capella o Fonta Gya Lecture #2 Venice Trip:  8 am Porta San Marco  The pre conditions leading up to 1860 and Italy‟s unification  The long run : the period going all the way back, and the lengthy history of the empire  1815-1860 – Risorgimento – the re awakening of the Italian people  Specific triggers or catalysts that resulted in the nation state known as Italy Nomen cloture:  Italy pre 1860 period is a geographic relation  Italy post 1860 period refers to a state that is formed in that time  Italian refers to the people residing in that territory in 1860  Italianeta the cultural milué that refers to a group of influential people The Long run/the pre conditions:  Doumanis position is (PG 4-5, 7-8, 46-47) a nationalist movement  There is little to base the idea of a nation on a primordial process  Long history of a fragmentation that occurs in a number of different ways  Venice emerges as one of the earlier states that had economic and political stability or at least more so then the surrounding regions o For close to 1000 years the Venetians saw themselves as a dominant regional power  To the south – shows movement of fragmentation o Moorish and Spanish control o The church its self is a sovereign power and considered a state  The fundamental element of a shared sense of a homeland is absent up until 1860  Vernacular component of understanding identity: the geography and the politics dictated a modern shared language o At the grass roots Italy its was vernacular language that is a combination of languages  What emerge were a large number of unintelligible languages with no assigned culture that is mass based  They did however right in the would be Italian  German, French and Spanish were the three main languages of discourse.  99.9% of the people shared a common religion Catholicism o Religion however plays a very limited role in creating unity o The church itself or the institutions of the church was strongly opposed to unification o 1929 the Vatican became its own state, it is the universal church of Christianity, not the church of Italy  Ancestors: it is very hard to claim ancestors with all the different regions of Italy o Has little importance‟s in the creation of the Italian state - there is no sense of shared territory on which everyone worked together in defend or develop - the fragmentation has resulted in competition - there was no real success from internal forces to unify the country The Catalysts  Risorgimento – the movement towards unity  The first thing that is established post 1860 is a creation of a story that described and glorified the process of Italy‟s steeps towards unity  The removal of French control over territories of Italy 1789 – the French Revolution  the context in which a modern state emerges  based on a radical transformation that provided momentum towards sovereignty  sovereignty was the will of the people  under napoleon France concurs a good portion of the Italian peninsula o pg 34 map exemplifies the consolidation of regions o the French intro duce modernized forms of governments o the system that is put in place was a hierarchal style  the French develop two things of importance o a revolution of self determination o the beginnings of modern administrative control for unification  A Nationalist movement does not emerge at this point 1814-1815 Napoleon is defeated and the map on pg 81 shows the reconstitution of Italy  changes that occur leading up to 1860 are rebellions and foreign participation, international rebellions that interrupt the stability of the region  Mazzini – takes the French model and attempts to construct a grass roots movement with young participation „the youth of Italy‟ o Mazzini is however marginalized  The advocation of the Piedmont Late 1850‟s  Cavour becomes the leader of Piedmont and there is a major shift in the regions policies  He eventually resigns as PM because of territorial decisions made by higher powers  Series of events that are out of control of Cavour which segways to Joseph Garibaldi 1859 – Garibaldi undertakes a naval expedition (the expedition of 1000) and claims rule of Sicily and Naples  this intimidates Cavour and the King in the North  the king sends a force to halt Garibaldi‟s progress and expansion o this stops (non violently) garibaldi, this event actually stops the consolidation of Italy and its regions under the Piedmont name  the first King of Piedmont is Victor Emmanuelle, the first Capital of Italy was Turin, later the capital was moved to Florence(1865), 1870 Garibaldi assumes Rome and this is the last step in the consolidation of the Italian state - the unification of Italy was the effect of a series of Plebiscites that were rigged - the vast majority of people in Italy were removed from the events that were taking place - Italy is unified as a result of unexpected and unplanned circumstances - Garibaldi becomes the hero of the movement however he had little sense of the idea of unifying Italy as a nation as he had an idea that he was going to go out and concur Piedmont - Riall who is a prolific writer on Italy  looks into the period in a much more positive light. She views the 1850s as the start of Italy‟s modern history Post creation of the state of Italy Pre presentation talk:  Siena identity : o The contrada and the involvement in the Palio o That is the purpose of the presentations to involve and enlighten us as students o Presentations 7/29/2013 12:51:00 AM Origins and the Development of the Palio:  Dated back to the Etruscan period  1260 Monteparte battle is thought to be a theory on the origin  theory #2: Commemorate St Caterina‟s miracle of 1594 o the smuggling of her body back to Siena  Elmora: physical strength test, quite brutal o Pugna: the division of the contrada 2-3 divisions  Bufalata of Lidia o Buffalo fights involving men  Palio Alla Lunga or Corsa alla lunga o Corsa alla tonda : the evolution of the track  Pallium: the banners to the winner o Pig gifted to the looser  Cacce o Event was more of a hunt in the piazza and this is where the contrada symbols derived from  The invasion of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany change the face of the race to relate to his ideals  The first Palio with horse races was in 1652 now shifted to a competition between contrada‟s and not nobels  1774: laid out the rules for the two palio dates  1729: division of the contrads geographically by the governor Development of the Palio  The competitors o The military power of Siena was diminished after the invasion of Florence o Palio lost importance and the Campo competitions gained popularity  Transition away from Terzis to Contradas o Introduction to the contrada development o Odd animal hunt that eventually represented the contrada symbols  Addition of the second race o Contrada de Oca‟s Victory o Now the Palio is 4 days long used to be 2-3 days  The Extraordinary Palio o The addition of a 3 rdPalio if there is a special circumstance or world event, or arrival of extreme royality  Changes in Regulations o The whip has changed into something less barbaric – from cleaver to leather whip o Animal rights issues have become a problem, and adjustments have been made. Ie: de-accelerations point the compaction of the ground. Preparations:  Procedures: o as soon as the year begins the contrada‟s begin fund raising and practicing o in April the contrada‟s provide schools that involve flag throwing and drum lines o there is a lottery that defines the participants o Alliances combine to scheme o 10 horses is the max number the piazza track can hold  Bribery is a large part of the Palio, many things happen like kidnapping and drugging of the horses  No official betting system  In 2001 spectators were chaotic and all the participants singled out one horse and targeted him  Tickets range from 300-700 Euro  Religious Preparations o Blessing of the riders and the horses o Celebration of the virgin Mary 4 Days of the Palio  Flags go out and the contradas begin to show their patriotism for their region  Gender : the women and children only come out until after the drummers and the flag throwers and then stand in the center  Horses are selected and the horses are assigned via a lottery system  Once the jockey gets their horse there are 6 trial races, after the 5 th race there is a dinner  After the 6thtrial the horses are blessed and the day of the Palio all the horses are blessed at the Duomo and then again at the contrada‟s main church Rules and Procedures  The days leading up to the race o Biannual race July 2 nd and August 16 th o 3 weeks before the Palio the 10 contrada are chosen o 3 days before the race the track is built, the horses are assigned, trial races or practice laps o On the eve of the Palio the 5 practice lap happens like a dress rehearsal o The 7 contradas are automatically included the the next race o The Jockeys are choosen and are usual not Sienese  Known as the Killers and can be bought by enemies  Horses o 30 horses are entered by breeders o very little compensation besides bragging rights o no pure breads allowed o checked by vets and eliminated based on ability o 10 are chosen by the Captains to be as evenly matched as possible o regulations and health checks o importance: the jockey can be changed up to the last min, but the horse cannot be changed Patrick – Rules and procedures from the arrival of the Horses  Mossiere : the starter  The Moteretto : the pistol man  The Verrocchio and The Canape: the starting mechanisms  The Bandierino: the black and white flag the marks the starting position  The jocke and the Horse o Covered the uniform from the helmet to the horses garb to the whip- ox hide o Contact rules with the other competitors o No saddles  The Start: the Mossa: single shot – first lap is a slow walk around the track three at a time 
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