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POL101 - Lecture 2: Modern Democracy

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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Modern Democracy 9/16/2013 9:11:00 AM Apartheid in South Africa 1978  Divided by racial, social and economical lines o Brutal policies o Passed laws that made it difficult for Blacks to live  High mortality rates for Blacks  19 million Blacks (80%), 4.5 million Whites  Apartheid ends 1994 o “relatively new” Would you go to prison to fight for or defend democracy? Democracy’s Appeal: The number of democratic countries 1975 – 46 1980 – 54 1985 – 61 1990 – 75 1995 – 111 2000 – 115 2005 – 120 2010 – 114 Why Democracy?  Virtues o Liberty  Freedom of association  Freedom of speech  Freedoms = rights o Equality  All citizens are equal regardless of race, gender, status o Rule of Law  Rights are protected by Rule of Law  Enshrined in constitution o Pluralism  Liberty + equality + rule of law = Pluralism  Multiple interests/voices/POVs o Institutionalized uncertainty  Elections  Winners/Losers (who’s gonna win?)  Losers are never out  compete again  Not thrown in jail, not dead  The ability to lose BUT compete again  that is democracy  Institutionalized  repetitive (do it over and over again)  Fragility o Breakdown and return to democracy26 countries (1974- 2010) o Breakdown and NO return to democracy 27 o It is fought for and won, but can be taken away o Ex. Thailand 2006, all citizens were banned and jailed o Ex. EgyptArab Spring o Not an ends of it in itself  not end product  As a Process o Fluid and fragile o “So far as I know, citizenship in no country carries with it the right to vote. The right to vote is a conferred right in every case…This parliament says upon what terms men shall vote…No Oriental, whether he be Hindu, Japanese or Chinese, acquires the right to vote simply by the fact of citizenship” – Hugh Guthrie, MP, 1920  Still very new, gradual democratization o 1867  only 11% pop. could vote (rich white men) o 1890 all men can vote o 1918  women (white) o 1020  all women o 1960  status Indians o 1963  universal franchise all racial minorities allowed to vote -People -Rights extended to people -Rights to vote Democracy rejects traditional forms of government  Modern  At its coreparticipatory 3 Dynamics 1. Building the foundation of democracy  Modernization Theory  Economic transformation o Farm  surplus  trade  roads, technology (wheel, trains, shiports) o Industrial revolution  Mechanization of production  Growth of firm and companies = increase trade  Economic development o Workers earning wages o Economic growth  growing middle class  decline of feudalism  Demographic change o Trade  attract merchants, workers o Women begin to work 19 C  Social change o More urban, more literate o Seek education move after farm o Secularization of society  governed by economic productivity o Creation of the “Modern Citizen”  Demand for political rights o People being educateddemand for rights/Rule and Law o Demand more of a say o INEVITABLY democracy emerges 2. Choosing democracy  Rarely happen overnight  Democratic is part of a longer process of transformation, through the experiences o
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