Modern Democracy (Lecture 2) 16/09/13
1975 – 46 Democracies (29%) of all countries
2010 – 114 Democracies (59%) of all countries
1) Democracy’s Virtue
2) Democracy’s Fragility
3) Democracy as Process (Not a product)
“People are sovereign, in oligarchies, few have this position.” – Aristotle
3 Important principles:
The rights extended to citizens
The right to vote in government
Democracy = Collective Decision making (Elections)
What is included in democracy?
Liberty – Freedom of rights, press, association, descent (oppose
govt), speech, deliberate/argue/debate.
Equality – All citizens are equal, regardless of race, gender. i.e)
everyone gets one vote
Rule of Law – Usually in constitution, not the rule of one
person, but the law instead
Pluralism – Multiple interests, P.O.V’s.
Democracy = Compromise of Pluralism
Institutionalized Uncertainty – Ability to win, or lose but
compete again. Losers are never out, can always rerun for
1974-2013, 53 countries that were democratic had broken down.
o Half of them returned to democracy
Democracy can be fought for and won, but can also be taken
Democracy as a Process
“So far as I Know, citizenship in no country carries with it the
right to vote. The right to vote is conferred right in every case…
This parliament says upon what terms men shall vote… No
oriental, whether he be Hindu, Japenese or Chinese, acquires the right to vote simply by the fact of citizenship” – Hugh Guthrie,
Women didn’t get to vote at the beginning of democracy.
o It is a process.
WRITE WHAT HE SAID HERE
1) Building Democracy’s Foundation
Modernization Theory –
o Economic Transformation – From agriculture to trade,
infrastructure required. Trade posts, the wheel, ships,
industrial revolution (mechanization of production, steam,
electricity, creation of companies for trade).
o Economic Development – Working for companies instead of
farms. Growing middle class, no longer about peasants.
o Demographic Change – People move into cities to work.