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Lecture 10

POL101 lecture 10.docx

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Political Science
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Jeffrey Kopstein

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POL101 – Lecture 10 – Cold War Realism November 29, 2010 - Our world divided by 2 parts (each side armed and with a different government) o More stable world than now o Nuclear war - How and what we study things had effect Cold War: Origin - Started in Europe, 1948 - Organized by military lines - End of WWII - Division of Europe - 1956, Hungary (taken over by Soviet Union) o 1953, Stalin dies, so other countries try to establish some form of independence o Yugoslavia was communist, but not part of Soviet block o Hungary doesn’t want to be Soviet anymore, so puts in a reform communist (allows freedom of speech) o 1957, Soviet Union had enough, so a little war between Soviets and Hungary  Hungary lost o USA encouraged Hungary to revolt  But Soviets took over Hungary again because USA didn’t help  (USA didn’t want to start WW3) o Germany was divided (East and West) [Berlin was divided too]  All had occupation rights in Berlin  Berlin Wall because Germany was losing people Cold War: From Confrontation to Stalemate - Nuclear weapons (weapons of a new kind?) o Nuclear weapons are too scary to use (can backfire) - Difference between deterrence and defense: o Nuclear weapons were used for deterrence and not defense o Used only to stop other’s weapon or if being overrun - MANNU: Data on nuclear weapons – means of delivery (missiles, submarines, bombers) - USA’s monopoly 1945-1949 - US superiority 1949-1968: Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) o Soviets had nukes (destruction is mutually assured -> second strike capability) - Basic doctrine in 1950s-80s, Mutually Assured Destruction - Parity 1968-1981 o Nuclear parity - Stable world o Each side had clients (gave them weapons) o Each side had influence Nuclear Capacity - USA: o Total number of nuclear missiles built, 1951-present (67 500) o Total number of nuclear bombers built, 1945-present o Peak number of nuclear warheads and bombs in the stockpile per year:  32 193 (1966) o Submarines are stable (hard to locate) - Soviet Union: o Less than US, but enough - USA and Soviets are not the only ones with nukes anymore - Military in cold war caused proxy wars: o Korean War o Vietnam war o Guatemalan Civil War o Angolan Civil War (Africa) - Nuclear disarming made war thinkable What is Realism? - Realism is the theory that states act in international spheres, according to their interests - States act according to their interests - Ideas and ideals and the handmaidens of interest - Security dilemma: the world is anarchic, no overarching authority (no global government) o There is UN, International Court of Justice (but they have no m
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