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Political Science

September 10, 2012 Understanding Theories of Nationalism:  Primordialism: o Pre-modern routes of a nation o Nations are ancient, national sentiments can be traced back generations o National sentiments are overpowering o Italians trace their routes to Roman Empire  Modernism: o Nations are a modern creation o Industrialization, the creation of modern states, the expansion of mass literacy o Most theorists believe that nations are modern  Does Israel want to be viewed as Primordialism or modernism? That is the critical question. September 17 , 2012 Theories of Nationalism - What is a nation/where does it come from? - What defines a nation?  Primordialism: o Isaaces – “Idols of the Tribe”; natural; inherited from the past o Geertz – Primordialism beliefs of people are indefinable and overpowering o Smith – Antiquity  Modernism: o Gellner – Industrial Revolution  Nationalism is a result of the structural requirements of industrial society  Industrialization brought about nationalism  Requires human beings that are mobile in the workforce  Requires that people know how to operate machinery and be able to read instructions  Factories and industries that are unsuccessful shuts down and therefore they need a mobile labor market  Needed the standardization of language through an expansive education system that makes people literate and makes them literate in the same language  Required the modern state so that it could standardize the education system and the language for its labor needs  As states developed they created these unified languages and cultures and that’s how people identified themselves and that’s how nations were created.  People started identifying themselves through language and culture  History didn’t actually work that way however  There were civil wars in which boundaries of exclusion were created in order to single out the ones who were not desirable in Spain, France, and the UK for example o Anderson – Imagined Communities  A nation is an imagines community  We come to imagine that we are a national community 1  But even members of the smallest nations will never know all their fellow members  So how do we come to form such communities?  A combination of historical and social forces that came together with industrialization provided the social historical context in which imagining nations became possible  Places emphasis on culture and print capitalism (wider distribution of books and newspapers as societies became literate) allowed for the development of new national cultures that took over from all religious or tribal cultures  Somewhere in the 19 century, literacy expanded, and at the same time, technological advancement allowed for mass circulation of books and newspapers that told stories and myths about societies histories and commonalities and let societies reading these literatures that they are a national community.  There are many holes in his theory:  Its not clear why the community to be imagined was a national community  Why some values were emphasized over others  Significance:  Points to the constructive nature of the national community and the modern circumstances for which these communities evolved. o Kedourie – Ideology  He also agrees that nationalism is a modern phenomenon  However, he puts emphasis on the role of the intelligentsia  Nationalism is primarily an ideology  Societies will do far better if that ideology never existed (nationalism)  Response to the liberalist ideology of the time  Took liberalism, elevated it to the level of the community and in reaction th to liberalism, and then created the nation September 24 , 2012  Modernist Perspective of Israel: o Social: persecution of Jews in Europe + emergence of nationalism in Europe  Zionist movement emerged in the 19 Century  Most Jews resided in Czarist Russian territory, including countries now known as Poland and Lithuania  At the end of the 19 Century, approx.. 4 million Jews lived in that region of the world  There were concentrations of Jews elsewhere like Morrocco and Yemen and Iraq – but their social conditions were different and Zionism did not emerge from there  Prior to the emergence of Zionism – Jews lived in self-governed communities/ghettos that had minimal interaction with the government  Most important institution was the kehlila (community)  The Kehlila generally had a judicial system with the authority to excommunicate those who violated these rules  Excommunication was the worst punishment because Jewish life outside these communities was impossible  On the whole, they had a tax collecting system 2  They had a relatively extensive wealth fare system  Self-contained th  Most of the population at the end of the 18 Century was then incorporated into the larger Czarist regime in Russia  In the 19 Century there were a number of developments that undermined the Kehlila  The most extreme was relationship with the Russian government and the French Revolution  In 1844, the Czar of Russia formally abolished the Kehlila  The regime transferred the functions of the kehlila into existing municipalities in which Jews were a minority  Anti- jewish violence erupted because the Jews attempted to continue to maintain their communities  Regime sponsored acts of anti-Semitism  Fabricated stories of Jewish conspiracy – jews killing Russians to steal their blood  This undermined the Jews ability to maintain their previous community  2 important development: French Revolution – the Enlightenment  New liberal ideas were created and spread  Individuals rather than communities have political rights  Secularism emerged – rational or scientific knowledge should be the basis for government rather than religion  This led to the emancipation of the Jews in France  Saw Jews as individuals and practically was premised on the idea that Jews as individuals can become citizens of France and as a community would not be entitled by any rights  Universal individualism  Napoleons conquest of Europe spread the emancipation of Jews  Excommunication was no longer a threatening punishment and therefore the kehlila lost its leverage over governing society  The idea of no longer being 2 class citizens was very attractive to many and therefore many Jews chose the path of social assimilation  2.5 million Jews left Czarist Russia between 1881 and 1914 to the USA or Western Europe in pursuit of these liberal ideas  The ideas of the enlightenment stimulated Jewish ideas as well  Emanating from Berlin in particular the Haskala movement was basically the Jewish version of the ideals of enlightenment  The main ideas of Haskala was the claim that Judaism was compatible with those criteria of reason and rationality  The Haskala assumed that the goal of acquisition of scientifically based knowledge, of rational thinking and its application to the Jewish cultural heritage was dependent upon literacy, knowledge of Europe language and university education and the idea that this was the key for progression  Basically the Haskala movement called for reform of the education the jaws were receiving prior  Changes in Jewish lifestyle, dress and manners  And Most significantly – reform in Jewish practice and rituals so as to create greater compatibility with society and the 3 enlightenment and laid the foundations for a reform movement against the orthodoxy that existed  Was talking also about integration  However, the ideas of universal rights also engendered a counter reaction within Europe with nationalism – local nationalisms in Europe – French, German, Italian etc…  This reaction highlighted the belief that there is a natural community of those with a common language, culture, religion, etc… and Jews were generally outside the national boundries as defined by those in Europe  The common historical mythology and religious aspect often left Jews excluded in the nationalist community  The reaction of Jews to these new and contradicting political and social challenges varied:  Maintaining the Kehlila – traditional orthodox community – became very difficult with a persecuting regime – so many people chose, if they could, to immigrate away to the US (most common response by Jews at the time)  Many others chose to remain in their countries and either assimilate or reform their Judaism that would be more compatible with Europeans as advocated by the Haskala movement  Both of these changes implied integrating into society and supporting the liberal progressive political forces against the nationalists  But there was another alternative (a third) – Zionism:  The Idea of a return to Zion (historic homeland of the Jews) in order to build a national home for the Jewish people –  In this light Zionism can be understood as one stream in the evolution othJewish identity over the course of Jewish history over the 19 Century  Zionism was by far the least popular response to the social movement in Russia and Europe (out of the three) – about 2% of the Jews in Europe wanted Zionism at the time  Jews were pessimistic cause they could not see a solution to the problem in Europe  Felt that nationalism would prevail over liberalism in Europe – even a return to the Kehlila was not a viable option  The only option left was to return to the historical homeland  Ideas of a “return” to the homeland (not migration) already began in the 1840s with 2 European Rabbis o Ideological:  Political Zionism – Hertzl  Spiritual Zionism – Ehad Ha’am o Political Movements (Ideological Streams):  Labor:  Revisionism:  Religious: o Intellectual Origins:  Rabbis Judah Alkalai and Tzvi Hirsch Kalisher; Moses Hess 4  They were not zionists and were not thinking in Zionist terms  They were thinking more in cultural terms  They were followed by Moses Hess who was from Germany and concerned with anti-Semitism  He envisioned a secular socialist Zionism  A Jewish homeland that operated according to socialist principles  Revision of Jewish culture  Theodore Hertzl – Political Zionism – The Jews’ state following the Dreyfus Trial; 1897 the World Zionist Organization  Credited as being the father of Zionism  Many of his ideas resemble Hess  Hertzl was influential partly because he was writing in a time where he could strike a note with larger populations who were experiencing anti-semitiism and where circulation of newspapers and print matter was on a wider scale – which is compatible with Anderson’s theory  In 1895, he published The State of the Jews – sometimes translated to the Jewish State – but there is a difference between the two – the main difference is – Hertzl was thinking about the Jewish state in the sense that they inhabit themselves and government themselves but not about the culturual and religious institutions rather the people  Was crtizied by Asher Ginsburg – more spiritual Zionist  Hertzl was the most influential Zionist – Journalist in Austrian newspaper and a German speaking Jew – encountered politicized anti-Semitism while writing in France while covering the infamous Dreyfus trial in 1894  The Dreyfus trial was a case where a Jewish officer in the French army Alfred Dreyfus was framed for espionage for Germany  Hertzl maintained that while listening to French mobs shout death to Jews and the experience of covering the trial is what made him into a Zionist  Others doubt this account because Hertzl began writing about Zionist accounts before this trial  In his coverage, the newspapers refused to write what he wrote about hearing death to jews and the editors replaced it with death to traitors  Migrants did not have much institutional support and relied heavily on outside help and ultimately many of these migrants weren’t able to sustain themselves and they would go back home  Hertzl realized the significance of an overarching organization  In 1897 he created the World Zionist Organization  Indespensable for the Zionist movement  Coordinated the first Zionist conference in Basil, Switzerland  In this congress, Zionism becomes a serious political movement – Founder of political Zionism rather than Zionism as a whole  It was his PR capabilities that enabled him to turn the Zionist enterprise into a significant movement 5  Hertzl makes the argument that Jews will always be seen as outsiders and different/subjected to discrimination  Even in a liberal country  He envisions a state the characteristics of which are of communal responsibility, shared enterprises – Hertzl was not a socialist – came from a bourgeoisie background but the state he envisioned had many characteristics that were compatible with socialist principle  Moses Hess was a more intellectual in his thinking but did not have the capacity to get results  Asher Ginsburg – Ahad Ha’am (one of the people) Spiritual Zionism  One of the critics of Herzl style of Zionism  Ginsburg had a more grounded understanding of reality – the state wasn’t really going to resolve the identity issue of the Jews (the homeland)  Even if you have a Jewish homeland – chances are, most Jews wont immigrate there  For a Zionist to say that – required far deeper thinking and vision to say this  He did not, like other Zionists, assume that by building it they will all come  Identity crisis – there is no place where true Jewish culture is created – no place that expresses Jewishness in its true dimension  The homeland need to be a Jewish state – needed to address the spiritual need of Jews whether they live there or not – Jews all over the world would need to still have a strong spiritual link to the place  Wrote under the pen name Ahad Ha’am (meaning one of the people)  He was not as influential at the time as Hertzl  AT the time however, the real focus of the people was more the political aspect then the spiritual aspect  At some point, different streams within Zionism began to develop and different people had varying opinions on what was required and what they wanted to achieve  They were coming from different social and intellectual backgrounds  3 General streams listed below: (Labor, Revisionist and Religious Zionism)  Most influential of the three on the pre state society – Labor Zionism  Ad Gordon; Borochov – Labor Zionism  Origins of labor Zionism can be traced back to the Czarist empire in Eastern Europe  More specifically to the Marxism that evolved  Marxists Jews were heavily influenced by revolutionary ideals in socialist Russia 6  But by having been rejected by Russian society, these Jewish socialists felt that the Russian proletariat was deeply embedded in Russian history and culture and they perceived a Jewish proletariat that understood Jewish culture and history within the largest marxist tendencies of Russia  Borochov wrote his Marxist Zionist theory – founding father of labor Zionism  First to try to synthesis jewish nationalism with a Marxist doctrine  Its in his doctrine that the ideological foundation was created for the first Zionist movement – workers of Zion  Problem: Marxism is anti nationalism at the core  The proletariat needs to build international class solidarity and conduct the universal revolution according to Borochov  Borokov – nationality is embedded in the social structure of multi national societies  In many cases – class overlapped with nationalism in pluralistic societies  Nationality and class overlapped  In his study – Borochov follows the claim that class liberation has to go hand in hand with national liberation  Basically Jews were subjugated as a nation  Barochov acknolowges that even within the subjugated nations there are subdivisions  Jews are at the bottom of the scale – within them there is an upper, middle and lower class  Notes that even amongst the Jewish bourgeoisie, they too were seen as outsiders and suffered from discrimination  So they also (the rich) require subjugation  The Jewish working and lower middle class need to carry out the revolution because they are suffering the most and have the least to lose  The Jewish upper class are still deeply embedded into the social infrastructure of the diaspora  First need to establish a Jewish proletariat society  That will be the society that will be the first to build the homeland  Jewish liberation would be attained exclusively through hard labor – in Palestine  Once a proletariat society was established, Jews could be integrated into the universal revolutionary process  A 2 influential labor Zionist in Gordon o He was the first Zionist thinker whose ideas were centered around the issues in Palestine itself o He migrated to Palestine in 1904 o Borochov was basing his ideas on his experience in Russia o Wave of immigration of Jews out of Russia to Palestine between 1904 and 1914 7 o Many came out with a labor Zionist (socialist) vision o Many participated in an unsuccessful revolutionary attempt in 1905 in Russia o Gordon saw labor in and of itself as redemptive o He constratsed life in what he said was decadent European society with udecadent labor in his homeland o exile was not just a physical movement of jews but also a sign of weakness, decadence, the lack of being able to sustain oneself o This is how he characterized jEwish life in the diaspora o Self-realizattion in contrast meant not only self-reliance but also physical contact with nature, o The best way to reconnect with the homeland is with physical labor of the homeland itself – agriculture and farming o This kind of thinking required a transformation of jewish life in Europe o It was viewed as a rebirth of the people o Wanted to replace the old characteristic of Jewish life in the diaspora with a new self-reliant jew o His doctrine laid the foundation for a second labor movement in Palestine – the Young Worker movement o First jews need to buy land, then settle there then work the land o Endorse the notion of Hebrew labor – reconnection o Who do you buy the land from – local landowners o Who are they? Rich arabs at the time o Being offered good money for their land o But this land has arab peasants on it – farmers o It’s the jews that have to work the land so the arab peasants are evicted o This leads to the conflict that will evolve later on in the region. The seeds have been laid.  Ze’ev Jabotinsky – Revisionist Zionism   Rabbi Kook – Religious Zionism October 1, 2012  Political Movements and Ideologies o Labor Zionism:  Ber Borochov – Poalei Zion (Workers of Zion) – Class and national struggles intertwined  Argued that the Jewish national revolution will be led by the proletariat – Marxist Zionism  First political Zionists were Marxist  First political party to emerge in Palestine  A. D. Gordon – Hapoel Hatzair (The Young Worker) – reconnection with land through its labor and agriculture 8  Saw the spiritual factor of the land as a means to reconnect with the land – reconnect with the land through agriculture  Led to the second political party in Palestine  Paved the way for cooperative settlements in which young Jewish settlers settled together and led cooperative lives in which ownership of what they had was shared – no private ownership – Kibutz  Modest and humble lifestyle  Did not work as well as envisioned cause there’s only so much you can share  Cooperatives were a way of settling in lands that were remote and through being there practically claiming ownership  Achdut Haavoda Party (United Labor)  Mapa’l  Labor Party  Eventually both would merge together  Gradually shed off some of their Marxist ideology  Provided the foundation for the contemporary labor party  Ideology of building the homeland through settlements *  Reconnecting with the land through agriculture *  Most of the land settled by labor Zionists was purchased from Rich Arab owners and the Arab workers and peasants were no longer needed because the Jews were to work the land themselves  Doesn’t deal seriously with the Arab population  The attitude at the time early twentieth century, those coming in were going to modernize the country and that the indigenous population would benefit from this transformation  At the time there were about 400000 Arabs in Ottoman Palestine at the time  They did not care for Arab nationalism which had already started  Did not pay attention to how the Arab population is going to react *  o Religious Zionism:  Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook – Zionism as enhancing Redemption; the centrality of Land of Israel  Zionism was a secular movement  It broke away from religious orthodoxy – in many respects it was anti religious  Jewish religious authorities treated Zionism with a lot of suspicion  According to the Orthodox, there was a reason why Jews were dispersed and exiled and it was punishment by God for sins  It was only after messianic redemption that Jews would be allowed to return to the promised land  Israel remained central to their tradition  But they were punished and needed to wait  Isaac Kook took this idea and turned it on its head 9  He integrated the normative centrality of the land of Israel into the political and practical activity of Zionism and the ressetling of Palestine  The land of Israel is the very essence of Judaism therefor enhancing the attachment to it is imperative for preparing the ground for messianic redemption  Rather than wait passively for this redemption to occur, Jews needed to take stepts in order to bring about redemption  They needed to reconnect with the land as a religious act in order to enhance their attachment to it and bring their redemption closer  What Kook argued was that secular Zionist jews unknowingly were doing holy work by settling the promise land and assisting in preparation for redemption and although they were secularists and saw themselves as breaking away from traditional jewish existence they were in fact needing encouragement  Formed an Orthodox national religious movement  NRP  From this movement also emerged an extra parliamentary movement that settles territories  Hamizrachi  National Religious Party o Integral Revisionist Zionism:  Ze’ev Jabotinsky – Military power, skepticism towards diplomacy and settlements – Beitar Youth Movement, Revisionist Zionist Movement (1925); New Zionist Organization (1935)  Argued that Labor Zionists were wrong to be dismissive of the Arabs in Palestine  First Zionist leader to recognize that Arabs were a nation just like the Jews were  And that as a nation they also saw this part of the middle east as part of their national territory and that there was no reason to welcome a rival nation (the jews)  They were a rational nation and as such they were likely to fight against the Zionists  Jews and Arabs both want the same thing and there is no reason to be naïve that they would welcome us because from their perspective we are taking away something from theirs  Therefore they will fight against us and what we need is strong military force  Military power was key to achieving Jewish national self- determination in the homeland *  He studied Law in Switzerland and italy and in Italy he became enchanted with nationalism  Extremely critical of liberalism regarding human nature and disagreed with the liberal view that humans are naturally kind and trustworthy  He accepted the underlying assumptions of European nationalism – humans are born into a nation and inherit culture and customs therefore it is extremely valuable  The nation ought to maintain its culture, land and language and reject external influences and retain its uniqueness and therefore 10 Jabotinsky rejected the idea of partial associations within the nation that contradicted the whole  Very critical of labor Zionism  Totally rejected idea of giving the working class special status cause it adversely affects national unity  The Jews need to put emphasis on putting a strong military power – when there is inevitable conflict the Zionists have to win – in such a way that the Arabs of the middle east would learn that they cannot defeat the Zionists militarily and have to come to terms with the existence of a Jewish state in the region by virtue of not being able to defeat it  “Iron Wall” – Had to build an Iron wall around them to protect themselves from such a hostile environment  Emerged while accepting Arab nationalism – seeing Arabs and Jews on almost equal terms  Skeptical in the way labor Zionists were to implement their program in terms of settlements  Argued that resources should not be spent on conquering land through settlements  He showed skepticism towards diplomacy – suggesting that diplomacy involved bowing down to the interests of others that do not coincide with the interests of your own nation  Founded Beitar Youth Movement – very strong military characteristics  Got very frustrated with the Labor Zionists and formed the Revisionist Zionist movement in 1925 and in 1935 he formed the New Zionist Organization  Successors formed the Likud Party once he died  Herut  Likud Party  Now governing Israel  Most dominant party in Israeli party since 1977  The one thing that has changed is its attitude towards settlements – but the Revisionists never had a settlement movement even though now they endorse settlements  Pre-state Institutions and society building o New Yishuv – community that evolved after WW1  Old Yishuv – community that was already in Palestine – wasn’t Zionist and mostly concentrated in Jerusalem  The New Yishuv – Zionist migrants  Jews were dispersed  Mostly residing away from the punitive homeland  This made immigration a central objective of zionism  Ingathering of the exiles was the term used o Cooperative Settlements (Kibbutz) o Jewish Agency o United Jewish Appeal o Jewish National Fund o Haganah (Defense); Etzel (National Military Organization); Lehi (Israeli Freedom Fighters) o Histadrut 11 o Aliyah (immigration) – Ascendance – 5 Waves  Literally means ascendance  Means normative foundation of Israel is strong  One of the central tenants of Zionism  5 Waves of immigration  The first 2 were pre WW1  The first one was a failure – most moved back to Europe  The second one 1904 – Labor Zionist/Marxists who build the institutional foundations for what was to follow  Third wave: Labor Zionist Wave as well post WWI accepted the institutional infrastructure that was built by their predecessors  The fourth wave 1920: Mass migration wave  The fifth wave: 1930s: Many of the migrants were not necessarily Zionists, let alone labor Zionists – they were pushed out of Europe by glowing anti-sematism, fascism, Nazism – many of them were professional and a new bourgeoisie – At a time when the US was experiencing the Great Depression and it shut the doors to migration so Jews could not go to the US like in the past and if they were leaving Europe, Palestine was the best option – They too integrated relatively smoothly to the institutional framework created by the Zionists o Knesset Yisrael o Va’ad Leumi o Proportional representation October 15, 2012  Jewish Migration to Palestine (5 Aliyah) o About 24000 in old Yishuv  Most were religious Jews inhabiting religious sites such as Jerusalem but they were not Zionists and did not see themselves as part of that movement o First Aliyah 1882-1903 – 20000-30000 from Russia  Unsuccessful migration wave in the sense that most of the Jewish migrants left back to their homeland – they did not have the resources or infrastructure to build a new society  What they were trying to build can be referred to as the New Yishuv – new Jewish settlement in Palestine  They relied heavily on Jewish philanthropists from Europe o Second Aliyah: 1904-1914 – 35000 Labor Zionists from Russia  Managed to lay the foundation for the New Yishuv  One advantage they had over the first wave of migrants was that they could rely on the World Zionist Organization, particularly for purchasing land and for funding them  Founded the Jewish Mutual Fund – get donations in Europe and USA to purchase land from Arab land owners in Palestine  Value of the land went up considerably when the Zionists showed interest and the purchased land was then settled on by the Jewish socialist migrants  Promoted physical agricultural activities and corporatives  Most were built in outlying areas – mechanism for settling remote regions that otherwise would be difficult to settle because individuals could not be expected to go there by themselves 12  One of the motto of these migrants was Hebrew Labor – they needed to work the land and without Jewish migrants would not arrive and a new Jewish society would not be built  * David Ben Gurion was one of the main leaders of the community  Many people left during WWI o Third Aliyah: 1919-1923 – 35000 Labor Zionists mostly from Russia (minority from Poland)  Following British take over of the region from the Ottoman Empire  Spread ideas of the Russian communist revolution to the Jews in Palestine  These migrants trained in Europe to prepare them for agricultural work in Palestine  Integrated well into society on arrival – accepted the authority of those who had arrived earlier in the Second Aliyah  US immigration laws were much more intense and fascism and Nazism were on the rise leading to the fourth and fifth aliyah o Fourth Aliyah: 1924-1930 – Ideologically mixed, mostly from Poland  Due to depression (economic) in Europe  Feeling the anti-Jewish backlash of the depression  Unlike previous waves, these migrants were not as ideologically motivated and were not socialists interested in physical agricultural labor  Middle Class – capitalists  Escaping physical danger at a time when Europe and the US were limiting migration –  These new-comers contributed to the establishment of a viable business community in Palestine – tradesmen, professionals, academics and indispensable for the establishment of the Jewish state  Around 150000 migrants o Fifth Aliyah: 1932-1938 – Middle Class, from Poland, Germany and Austria  Around 200000 Jewish migrants  Almost exclusively to rise of Hitler in Germany in 1933  Not ideologically motivated by Zionism and Socialism  Textbook refers to them as refugees  The Jewish population more than doubled itself during this period of immigration  About 1/5 of the migrants were from Germany and Austria – most were from Poland  These migrants were also middle class urbanites, doctors, engineers, architects and brought with them organizational skills *  Crucial because for an economy to be built that kind of diversity is required and it was rare for any nationalist movement at the time to have such a steady composition – largely explains why the Jewish nationalist movement was more successful than other nationalist movements around the world – others were fighting against colonialism and so they didn’t have this educated social makeup of skilled professionals  Principles and institutions (Arab nationalism on the rise as well) o Principles:  Ingathering of the Exiles  Immigration  Jewish population had grown by 500%  Arabs only by 50% -- were feeling threatened 13  They responded by revolting against the British and Jewish settlers  The Revolt of 1936-1939 (the Great Arab Revolt): As a consequence the British severely limited Jewish immigration for years to come  In 1936 British began implementing political criterion on top of Economic ones to ensure that the Jewish population would not surpass 1/3 of the population in the region  As a result illegal Jewish migration intensified and some were successful but many were intercepted  Many were imprisoned by the British (56,000)  The Arab revolt led the Jewish community to start making weapons/smuggling weapons, training a fighting force, building orgs that will aid migration despite the British attempt to stop Jewish migration  Although Jewish nationalism was similar to other nationalist movements they still dealt with 2 things: o They were outside the punitive homeland o They were dispersed and didn’t own the land which was supposed to be their homeland  Land Redemption  Land Purchases o Institutions (aided to solve 2 problems):  United Jewish Appeal (UJA): Keren Hayesod – 1921  Collect donations for purchasing land – and maintaining ownership of the land so the Jewish people could settle there  They also supported the settlers themselves financially  Because they would not have otherwise been able to sustain themselves  Jewish National Fund (JNF): Keren Kayemet Le’Israel – 1901  To raise funds for the Jewish settlers in Palestine  Driven by the idea of transforming Jewish identity  Of creating the New Jew  From dispersed group to unity in their historical homeland  Principle was to provide land on lease so that they could not just sell the land to Arabs if things were not working out and ruin the Zionist movement  Property of the Jewish National Movement  IF they owned the land (JNM) they would be able to use the land for whatever it saw as the national goals  The principle of giving land on lease would pass on to the state of Israel – there is very little private ownership of land in Israel today – over 90% of the land is state owned  Kibbuts: Cooperative settlements  Socialist underpinning but also a way to redeem land  Collective responsibility  Received land from the JNF but not ownership of it for exactly the same reasons 14  There was a period in the 1990s when Israel was going under privatization – questions of ownership of land started to be raised because many kibbutz were not doing well  Agriculture was less profitable in a market economy and so they had no means to survive cause they didn’t even own the land  Solutions they looked for – building guest houses and hotels on the land that wasn’t their land – to what extent were they allowed to build neighborhoods outside the kibbutz on land they worked for decades but they didn’t own – needed money  Pre-state institutions and society building From the end of WWI (British Mandate) o Gradual shift of the focus of Zionist politics from Europe to the New Yishuv in Palestine because of the British Mandate o New Yishuv o Jewish Agency – 1929  Responsible for coordinating all the activities of the Zionist movement and representing the Zionists in diplomatic arena and governments  Executive of the Jewish agency was the chief decision making body and the head was originally head of the Yishuv and it became the most political significant body – government ministries, finance, diplomatic relations, immigration, education, labor and traded industry  Developed extensive and autonomous education system that promoted the Hebrew language – New Jew that exiled the Old Jew  UJA – fundraising arm of the entire Jewish Agency – implemented what was promised to them by the League of Nations (the Zionists) – demanded autonomy from the british and to practice it  Because of the organization infrastructure they were able to self-govern and practice autonomy  The Jewish agency established the organizations that would become national organizations when the state of Israel was created in 1948 o Haganah (Defense), 1920, Etzel/Irgun (National Military Organization), 1935; Lehl (Israel Freedom Fighters), 1939  Haganah – means defense  Protect Jewish settlements from growing aggression they were feeling from the Arabs at the time  Initially the strategy was of defense of its borders  Gradually however, its strategies incorporated more mobile activities, setting up posts further away from Jewish settlements – preemptive strives against the British  The changes in strategy were paralleled with organization changes and turns into a national organizational body  Haganah provided nucleus of Israeli military when it was founded (Israel Defense Force)  Symbolized shifts in the image that Jews had for themselves  Strong, weapon holding, self-governing, powerful, capable of defending, worthy of national self-determination  A Jewish state within a British state until 1948  1)The New Yishuv provided essential services instead of the British mandatory state – if you wanted schooling your best bet was to be part of the Jewish agency and as a result, the Yishuv leadership had the capacity to tax in order to fund these systems 15  2) Yishuv established a framework based on proportional representation – included the religious Zionists o Knesset Yisrael  Electoral system for all Yishuv members – all adults and even women were allowed to vote – makes Israel one of the earliest democracies to include women  Almost 80% voted in the first election – unknown in most democracies to have such a big voter turnout – indicate the legitimacy of the institution itself  Very important for the Zionists to create the Knesset  Having an elected assembly was a simple to national autonomy in Palestine and that’s why it was so important to the Zionists o Va’ad Leumi  National Council of Knesset Yisrael  Just like a cabinet  Because of proportional rep – no single faction could gain majority  If a faction got 1% of total vote they would get a seat in the Knesset – meant that many people could get representation in the Knesset  Also meant that it was very difficult for the Labor Zionists to get majority in the Knesset  Coalition governments – almost never been the case in Israel  Almost always saw large coalition governments that reflected more factions then necessary – thinking was that by being inclusive it was better for the national movement on a whole – trying not to leave groups out because they want to unite as many as possible  This was the kind of power sharing thinking that guided the Zionists – teacher uses example of a b c d e political groups and that in Israel b and c would not form a coalition but rather b c and d (more political parties – try and include everyone) – especially early on and Ben Gurion o Proportional Representation  Very important for the Zionist movement to represent as many Jews as possible  One mechanism to do it was to try and provide incentive for Jews in the community just to participate  Done through power sharing institutions (Dowty)  World Zionist Organization and in Jewish agency – local electorate council Knesset Yisrael which acted as a local legislature  The system of proportional representation was implemented in both – in the Zionist organization there was one representative for every 100 members – this was essential for being as inclusive as possible and encouraging locals to recruit members and deal with diversity o Main Political Parties: Ahdut Ha’avoda (1919), Mapa’I (1930) = Labor, Hamizarahi (National-religious); Revisionists (1925)l General Zionists  Strongest were the Labor Zionists (usually built coalition)  Mapa’I is the most important one to remember of the Labor parties  By 1930 – Leader was Ben-Gurion and had already abandoned his socialist Marxist views were waning – Remained the most powerfull political party in Israel till 1977  Meant being more preoccupied with national concerns than socialism and was particularly true with the emigration waves before WWII when many did not have these socialist views 16 o Ultra-Orthadox did not see themselves as part of the community but the Zionist always tried to lure them in through cooporation and when the state was founded they also agreed to recognize it to sign its declation of independence and to become part of the state and even form coalition governments in the state period  Hamizrahi: integrated religion with nationalism  They were also allowed to maintain a separate Zionist education system with the Zionist system  Religion was allowed to take place  Transformed into the National Religious Party in Israel today  Elements of power sharing arrangements are still very much salient in Israeli politics today  General Zionists:  Not ideologically committed to any particular brand of Zionism – most of the community probably ideologically closest to the General Zionists even though they didn’t do well in election – not religious, socialist, just Zionists – more liberal oriented but never managed to succeed in a significant way in election  Joined forces with the Revisionists to form the Likud Party which is currently governing Israel –  Revisionists: formed in 1925  They seceded from the Zionist organization and formed the New Zionist Organization  The result and legacy will be discussed next class o 1935 –Revisionists Secede – new Zionist Organization o Histadrut (General Federation of Workers in the Land of Israel),1920 o David Ben-Gurion (Head of Mapa’i, Histadrut, Jewish Agency)  International Context: British Mandate: o Balfour Declaration (1917)  Ambiguous – Jews can have a national home o Hussein – McMahon Correspondence  McMahon promised Hussein and the Arabs political independence in the territories they occupied during the Ottoman Empire – West of Damascus (the part that was promised to the Jews) was excluded o Mandate from the League of Nations  Established to bring to the world following WWI precursor to the UN  Gave Britain and France a mandate over the Middle East  For our purpose the important one is the British Mandate of Palestine  Gave international legitimacy to the JeAws national claim over the territory  Spoke of autonomy with a Jewish agency  As a result a Jewish agency was formed o Peel Commission of 1937 – First Partition Plan o White Paper 1939 – Retraction of Balfour Declaration Commitments October 22, 2012 – Lecture 7  Book review notes: o Read book more than once and take notes o 1) What is the research question that the author is asking? Identify it o Identity the author’s answer to the question – the answer to the question is essentially the authors’ core argument/thesis 17 o 2) Ask yourself – how does the author try to demonstrate the validity of his argument? What kind of evidence does he use? What kind of comparisons does he make? Does he deal with counter arguments? Counter arguments are essentially alternative answers to the question that is being asked. o 3) only after these two steps do you move onto your opinion – based on the 2 step you evaluate the book – does the author do a compelling job in demonstrating the validity of his argument, through the way in which he uses evidence, the logic of the argument, through evaluating supporting arguments – ask whether the treatment of the counter arguments is fair – o DO NOT – provide a chronological description of the book – should not write first the author does x, then y, then z o Not required to use other sources – however, if you do, and you borrow an idea, then you need to cite it – please adhere to the guidelines in the course outline – max 1500 words – double space 12 font o Only need a paragraph for number 1 o What does require more explaining is number 2 – how he demonstrates the validity of the argument  Revisionists: -- Jabotinsky – Etzel/Irgun o The revisionists were not included in this coalition from last class o They broke away from the jewish community in 1935 o They broke away primarily because of ideological disputes o The revisionists were formed in 1925 as a political party of their own o They are revisionists because they believed Zionism needed to undergo revision if it needed to succeed o Accepted compromises of territorially partition proposed by the British o Revisionists won 23% in the 1931 election which was second to Mapai in the Knesset o Jabotinsky won 21 to Mapai’s 29 % -- therefore he was viewed as a threat by the mainstream leadership o However, with the shift of focus of the Zionist movement from the international to the Yishuv community in Palestine, Labor Zionism managed to consolidate control in the Jewish agency o He believed in territorial maximization o The Labor group agreed to British partition planes, while Jabotinsky believed they should not settle for anything less the historical homeland which included Trans-Jordan and use force o In 1935 the revisionists officially broke away o Formed their own paramilitary organization instead for Haganah – called Etzel/Irgun o The reason for breaking away was cause they thought the Haganah was being too reactionary as opposed to initiating activity – too much focus on defending Jewish communities as opposing to using the
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