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Modern democracy 2.doc

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Political Science
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Lecture Two: Modern Democracy Course Outline: Democracy’s Virtue; Democracy’s Fragility; Democracy as Process; Building Democracy’s Foundations; Choosing Democracy; Making Democracy Work; 1. What democracy means? ( E.g ofApartheid in SouthAfrica) 1) Average earings: Black people: 45$; White people: 700$ 2) White and Black people were allowed together; Vote; 3) Democracy has become a global phenomenon twenty years ago; it is still a very new term; 4) Democracy maintained the global peace; democracy does not fight democracy; 2. Democracy’s virtue: 1) Liberty: freedom; rights of association, press; speech; 2) Equality: Through the right to vote, wealth and gender difference do not matter; 3) Rule of law: equality is protected by law; (constitution) Democracy is rule of law; not rule of dictator; 4) Pluralism : it is the core principle of democracy; Multiple interests; views; ideas. ideologies; 5) Institutionalized uncertainty: Election made this uncertainty; Democracy is about the election: the ability to vote government out or in; Why democracy is unique: losers never out of the campaign; They can always compete again; Institutional : compete again and again; and never know who will win; 3. Democracy’s Fragility: ?? 1) 4. Democracy’s Process: 1) Democracy is very new in the world; it experiences a dynamic process; 2) Example of democratic process: 1963 All races can vote-->1965 Minority can vote-->1980 White women can vote 3) Democracy is not just a period; 1 Pluralist democracy: It refers to a form of democracy that operates through the capacity of organized groups and interests to articulate popular demands and ensure responsive government. 5. Dynamics of democracy: 1) Building democracy’s foundation I) The modernization theory; How society experiences economic, social and political transformation? A. Economic transformation: Farmers--> Trade--> Roads-->Central square-->market; This experience causes a industrial revolution; Industrial revolution encourage the growth and creation of company and trade; B. Economic development: The industrial revolution encourages the development of companies; More works/labors work for companies; The industrial revolution also encourages the economic growth; C. Demographic change: More and more people move and live in the city; Female workers also participate in company work; D. Social change: As the city grows, the process of urbanization also help the development of education. E. Demand for political rights: While people become more educated, they need: Rule of law demand; Voice be heard; Caused the emergence of democracy. II) The “Transition Zone”: Democracy does not cover all over the world; According to some data analysis, poor countries still remain non-democratic situation; III) Bowling Alone: Social modernization a.Associated social fabric: The US modernization is through association. It is the base of social democracy. 2 b. Formation of Social Capital : People are gathered and bowling together; Not alienated. Example of Social capital and public satisf
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