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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 – Civilian Violence and War.docx

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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Lecture 9 – Civilian Violence and War Nov 25 From Ancient Greece to the Holocaust  War is normally thought of as state on state  Violence generally monopolized by state  Weber – state: monopoly of legitimate use of violence within a given territory  Civil war is something different  Collapse of state, collapse of sovereignty  Example) Syria, the state does not have a monopoly on use of force within the country  Either no or multiple competing sovereignties  What is the difference between civil war and revolution? o See situations as revolutions depending on the outcomes o If sovereignty wins, it is civil war, not revolution o Sometimes revolutions are not revolutionary, does not result to change  Difficult to make sense of neighbor on neighbour violence Ancient Greece: Peloponnesian War  431 to 403 BCE  Backstory: 480BCE: Greece beat back Persians, lead by Athenians (Delian League)  479 to 432BCE Rise of Athens versus Sparta  Contrast: Athens was land while Sparta was maritime, Athens was oligarchy while Sparta was a democracy, Athens was military while Sparta focused on commerce  Democracy and leadership (Pericles) o Reasons for war: Rise in power of Athens and alarm it caused in Sparta and its allies  Corcyra (Corfu) 427BCE o Oligarchs versus Democrats each with external backers (Athenians, Spartans) o Civil War -- "Now in time of peace they could have no pretext and would not have been so eager to call them in, but because it was war, and allies were to be had for either party to hurt their enemies and strengthen themselves at the same time, invitations to intervene came readily from those who want a new government.” o Civil war and restraint (when sovereignty disappears) -- "Every form of death was seen at this time; and there was nothing people would not do. And more: fathers killed their sons; men were dragged out of the temples and then killed hard by; and some who were walled up in the temple of Dionysus died inside of it.” Human Nature and War  Change people’s circumstances and they act very differently War and Language  War alters language  Thought is dependent on language  "And they reversed the usual way of using words to evaluate acti
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