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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Monday, October 7, 2013 Lecture 6 Communism and Fascism  The high point of both was the 20 century. Liberalism and its Crisis  Long 19 century is peak of liberalism’s appeal.  If you did not have liberal institution, you were deemed a political savage.  Liberal institutions develop even where social basis is not obviously present. Liberalism and the Working Class  Extension of the franchise (the right to vote).  At first its was based on property requirements, the gender requirements, then racial requirements.  Rise of social democracy in Western Europe. Evolutionary socialism and reconciliation with liberal democracy: electoral socialism. What about the Revolution?  Lenin: the revolutionary movement under conditions of authoritarianism- Russia.  Up until the 20 century Russia was still run by a king without a constitution.  You had to have a conspiracy party that was underground because the czar would just have you arrested and shipped out.  Workers only capable of “trade union consciousness”.  Lenin thought that the creation of a welfare state was not a socialist act, but rather the opposite.  Need “party” to bring them the truth: what this means for Marxism. Marxism and Economic Backwardness  Russia- one of the most backward countries in Europe.  Working class revolution, with small working class.  1917: World War and Revolution. World Revolution or World Power  World revolution fails to materialize.  Russians leave the war and the Germans take their land.  After the civil war in Russia it became clear there wasn’t going to be a world revolution.  From insurrectionism to statism- supporting communism means supporting the Soviet Union.  But what is communism or socialism? What will this kind of economy look like:  Lenin: “communism= soviet power + electrification”.  It still didn’t solve the problem. Stalinism: Terror and Progress  Industrialization  Collectivization  Terror and Secret police  Purges and famine…  Soviet Russia still saw themselves as socially threatened from the outside world from 1918- 1921 and thought they had to build a strong army. This was made possible by industrialization.  Stalin was made head of the general secretarianship by Lenin.  While working this position over the years, he made sure all replacements were loyal to him
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