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January 6 wong.docx

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Political Science
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Jeffrey Kopstein

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January 6- global governance - WONG (Ie. the monk school of global affairs- institution and track of global governance) Comparative politics (International level) Global gov- normatively appealing, we want global peace rather than anarchy International system- it is a form of gov’t intended to be applied to international level- managing international system theories: ie. realism or neoliberal policies. Realist approach: Pessimistic, anarchic and conflict is the norm (prone to conflict), relative power imbalances we live in an international system with no global government and we live in an anarchic system b.c we favour national interests (personal interests). National interests = most important. National power matters- it is about relative power (more power than your neighbour- this is what matters- more powerful than other states- not about absolute power standing)  Zero sum – my gain is your loss or someone’s gain is someone else’s loss- there is a finite amount of power. Only way to balance power- hegemonic stability- an all powerful country maintaining stability (ex. US) -WW1- resulted due to the rise of Germany industrialising and challenging the hegemonic power of England (which was on the decline) = conflict = structural realist approach to explaining this war Collective security- all nation states would be committed to protection of sovernty- if one state threatened another’s sovernty, they would be punished collectively by other countries – this was thought to deter countries from attacking or invading other countries in the first place because they would be punished –LEAGUE OF NATIONS (founded post-ww1 to prevent this war from happening again) –they failed th We were thinking about international system in the beginning of 20 cen. Neoliberal- similar to realist- view world as international anarchy- no such thing as world gov’t Sovernty- organizing system We CAN have an interdependent system- not always national interests thst ready countries for a state of war- but there can be complex interdependence (ex. another countries security alliances, wealth, economy etc) They argue rise of China no biggie because they are dependent on the US Managing climate change, global health issues = complex interdependence  positive sum political relationships- we can cooperate with other countries and all benefit- countries will benefit unequally, but in the grand scheme of things, all countries benefit. Functional specialization- we cannot cooperate about everything but in some areas we can- as a global community we can cooperate ie. using all knowledge and experts to create win-win sitautions. The way we can enforce this is with norms (informal rules of standards of appropriate behaviour) and formal rules. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION -ie. world trade organization which recognizes we live in interdependent world where everyone gains overall (and it is functionally specific, with FREE TRADE with accompanying rules) European Union- have interests of cooperation and have standards if a countries want to join (look up) UN system of states- to maintain international peace and security to take international measures for effective collective measures for removing threats. It wants to develop relationships between nations based on rights (all states are equal). Soverignty is the equalizer- countries are all equally soverign. Wants to achieve international cooperation with soc, eco etc. It draws on neoliberal policies- positive sum. -Harmonizing the actions of nations, to alighn the interests and actions of states to solve international problems. Why Global governance? –we live in world of global risks. We live in Risk Society (German theorist- Beck) These risks are more common than ever before- because we live in a global commons. Technology- world interconnected Anthrax- in 2001 being mailed to senators (but all of our mail goes through a centralized automated sorting center- all mail sorted) SARS- global epidemic (disease knows no borders) Uncertainty- cyber interactions compromised New kinds of risks- individual countries: genocides, civil war, state breakdowns etc. – We cannot meet the challenges of the 21 cen. With 20 cen. Approaches. We all have the same interests- Obama on G20 Features of Global governance international management in absence of globa gov’t & privilege sovereignty collective fate, common problems need to be addressed (ex. global financial crisis hit wall street hardest)- we need a level of coordinaton We need functional specialization (World health organization- formed in 40’s started out small but has grown- they now create international health regulations which all countries have to follow- they are always changing with the gain of new knowledge) Globally participatory- this is not hegemonic governance. Not just a deal imposed by great power- all states are state holders- they compromise and create rules UN general assembly- all nation states have only 1 vote regardless of the country’s characteristics (size, population or wealth) Inter-state Coordination between government- it is transparent – iterated (repeated- meet, discuss and go home- it is not an ends in itself it is an ongoing process of coordination) Global compromise- Pareto optimal – no one country disproportionally disadvantaged RECALL: RAWLS Principle of efficiency- aka Pareto optimality. The principle holds that an arrangement is efficient wherever possible to make one person or persons better off without making another person or persons worse off. For example, produce more of a commodity without producing less of another. Harper on G20- we can’t deny we live in a realist world but we must live
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