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Failed States.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL101Y1
Professor
Jeffrey Kopstein
Semester
Fall

Description
Failed States 03/05/2012 Modernization: Sequences West: State first, nation second, followed by mass politics The rest don’t follow this sequence Mass politics before institutional development Praetorian Polities  A modicum of modernization (education, urbanization, industrialization) Exists in the modern developing world. People getting smarter, cities growing… Mobilized, semi­modern societies (example of how rich people in poor countries are better off than rich  people in rich countries) Weak institutionalization – parties, bureaucracies, regulation Bureaucracies are good because they’re impersonal, you are not treated as an individual but as a  number. If you were treated as an individual you are most likely to be an “outsider” and have it work  against your favor Weak civil societies Democratic politics: programmatic versus clientelistic/charismatic When you vote for a political party, you have to choose based on competing visions of the public good.  So you choose based on the issues they care about and their positions on those issues. Democracies outside the rich west pay their people to vote for them. The voters are therefore like their  “clients” Example: crowds in Venezuela supporting Chavez are paid to be there. Sometimes directly, sometimes  are rewarded as being part of a larger organization Institutional overload: raw social power confronting states unmediated by institutions of civil societies  and political parties Civil societies are voluntary associations that are non­governmental that people can join With no mediating institutions such as civil societies there becomes a shortage to fulfill social demands  due to limited resources International financial institutions apply pressures of their own. Again, countries have very limited resources and must therefore resort to taking loans from institutions  such as the IMF. Praetorian polities: nationalism and political integration  Post­colonial state precedes “nation.” Problem of “tribalism” and national integration (Example of  Nigerians thinking of themselves in terms of their ethnic group over being Nigerian) Dysfunction of parties (elections are ethnic censuses) Dysfunction of bureaucracies  Economic development policies meant to sustain state rather than create wealth Praetorian polities: the Coup Mass politics, weak loyalties to the center, weak institutions create unrest and sometim
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