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02_sept 16_pol MODERN DEMOCRACY.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL101Y1
Professor
Jeffrey Kopstein

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Monday, September 16 2013 POL – LEC 2 South America apartheid Politically, socially, economically SAdivided amongst racial lines Apartheid in south Africa chart: - blacks make up 80% of the population but have much less land allocation (13%), share of national income (20%), than whites (population 20%): land allocation (87%), share of national income (75%) Democracy as global phenomena is relatively new Only 20 yrs ago SAended apartheid (racial discrimination) Millions around world fighting for democracy - democracy is a political system that we can’t take for granted Clicker q1: would you go to prison to fight for/defend democracy: 59% Y Democracy’s appeal Year No. democracies % of all countries 1975 46 29 1990 75 46 2010 114 59 - rapid expansion of democracy Democratic societies begin to modernize - post war period globally modernization process led to process of democracy Democracy’s Virtues: - people (demos) most important:Aristotle quote on the politics - rights of citizens: Robert Dalh on polyarchy - rights impersonal, inalienable - elections :Samuel Huntington on democracy - three principles of democracy: people, rights, vote governments in/out - all have a say - may elect by virtue of our right to vote we are participating in collective decision making - the elected vote is consequential and can converse/oppose to government - business of government no longer business of kings, churches, tribal chiefs - it is modern, and at its core participatory 1 characteristic of democracy => liberty: freedom, freedom of association, freedom of speech - these freedoms are rights – the right to descent/oppose - have the right to deliberate, argue, form own views nd 2 characteristic=> equality: doesn’t matter race, gender, class, - if you are a person you get 1 vote - equality principle of modern liberalism: about the individual 3 => principle of liberty & equality protected by rule of law - constitutional rules - not the rule of one person (dictator) th 4 => pluralism (liberty+ equality+ rule of law = pluralism) - multiple interests, voices, points of views, multiple ideologies - democracy compromise amongst pluralisms 5 => institutionalized uncertainty - democracy about elections - elections gives ability to vote government out - democracy about winners and losers What makes democracy virtuous: - losers are never out - losers can compete again - losers aren’t thrown in jail, dead, or party banned, illegal, blacklisted - make democracy democratic: never know who can win, there is an uncertainity DEMOCRACY’S FRAGILITY Type of breakdown No of such breakdowns % of all democracy 1974 – 2010 Breakdown and return to 26 16% democracy Breakdown and no return to 27 16% democracy Total 53 32% - Democracy is not an ends of itself - not a final product: it is a process DEMOCRACYAS PROCESS - democracies dynamic, fluid and fragile - even in west democracy is new: still undergoing process of gradual democracy - democracy still very new in CAN, US, continual dynamic process - Hugh Guthrie MP 1920 quote - 1867 on 11% of population could vote: only white, property men - 1918: only white women could vote - 1960: status Indians right to vote - 1963: gave all racial minorities the right to vote - democracy long term evolutionary process - Canada did not start off as democratic nation during founding year 1867 - democracy just doesn’t appear, it is a process - 3 dynamics - building democracy’s foundation - choosing democracy - making democracy work - building democracy’s foundation - modernization theory: theory about how societies modernize; theory about how societies economically transform, people socially transform, - economic transformation: trade, industrial revolution (electricity, see growth of firm, creation of compani
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