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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

October 28 2013 POL – LEC 7 Democracy with Chinese characteristics - china is not a democratic country - china is anti liberal- democratic, capitalism model - hegemonic of USAis beginning to come down - democracy image is being tarnished - rise of India and china while fall of united states ofAmerica - Premier Wen Jia Bao: “ the people’s wishes for and needs for democracy and freedom are irresistible” - gave tremendous hope to people - serious discussion amongst party leaders for prospect reform - Daniel bell and chenyang li, October 9 2013 - no potential for reform - don’t assess china based on western liberal democratic norms - perhaps in another two decades we will be discussing how Chinese style meritocracy has provided an alternative (even a challenge) to western style democracy Prospects for democracy in china - china would become democratic - test of Fukuyama’s end of history thesis - china is an enduring alternative CQ: SHOULD CHINABEADEMOCRATIC COUNTRY? Y 52% N 46% CQ: SHOULD GOVERNMENTS OF OTHER COUNTRIES CRITIZISE CHINAFOR ITS HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD TO ENCOURAGE CHINATO BECOMEADEMOCRACY? Y 56% N 43% CQ: WILL CHINABECOMEA DEMOCRACY IN YOUR VIEW IN THE NEXT 20 YEARS? Y27% N72% China in the modern era End of the Qing dynasty th - beginning of the 20 century - last dynasty - hastened by the opium war (fought against England): British merchants were bringing into China amounts of opium where many were becoming addicted; fights war against England and loses; British demand reparations (money spent for the war) - in 1895 china engages in war with Japan (treaty of Shimonoseki) - terrible situation in china that set the stage of the end of the Qing dynasty - population crisis - economic crisis that begins a nationalist revolution - Qing dynasty is a Manchurian dynasty (others saw it as being ruled by a minority) - October 1911: overthrow of Qing dynasty - creation of the Republic of China Republic revolution - main goal was to rebuild a modern China Sun Yat Sun - three principles of the people: nation, democracy, and people’s welfare - china was to be the real point of modernization Non democratic modern china - man stood in front of Chinese tanks - There is no uninstitutionalized uncertainty - No meaningful elections - very quick separations of powers - very few freedoms I) ADemocratic Revolution Founding of war of nationalism against Japanese during WWII Mao proclaimed people’s republic of china Mao nationalist but also tyrant Mao wanted to install key guiding principles - socialism - Chinese revolutionary spirit: anything could be overcome - anti foreign nationalism: china had been humiliated by English and Japanese and treaty of Versailles; based on the spirit of self reliance High tide of Maoist socialism (1949-1956) - Mao unveils 12 year plan (agriculture production to increase by 125%; land collectivized; agricultural production cooperatives; china harnessed industry of peasant produced more by working more hours) - production increased but due to people working harder - china’s economy grew remarkably 100 flowers movement (1956) - allowed to criticize the party (but in his mind he wonders what is there to be critical about) - 100 flowers to bloom 100 thoughts - What happened to democracy, political reform, and liberal political reform? - saw this as an attack against socialism Anti rightist campaign (1957) - anyone who criticizes the party was labeled as a rightist - a purge of all of those dissidents within this party; eliminate those who had an idea of democracy Great leap forward (1958-1962) - dissidents saying perhaps Mao doesn’t love his country - china was going to go hard core - all of agriculture was collectivized (everything was to be now communal) - creation of steel furnaces (main industrial focus) - needed people to work collectively - claimed that China’s steel production would overtake United States in about 10 years - people were smelting their own pots and pans in order to meet steel goal - no market incentives, production was set by state, prices set by state, no foreign technology - was a disaster: wrongly and incorrectly relied on masses - was closed to global economy: no foreign investment - about 30 million people died during the Great Leap Forward Cultural revolution (1966-1070) - Mao was increasingly marginalized within economy - people with analytical skills were beginning to rise - Mao became desperate to re-energize masses again - Mao beginning to attack his opponent within the party in 1966 - aligned with students and created brigade (red guards) - began to call young people for a cultural revolution - bottom up revolution: young people called to destroy four olds (customs, habits, cultures, thinking) - his way to eliminate rivals, to show them that he still had control and that the masses still wanted to follow him - complete anarchy - between 3 and 30 million people died - 10 lost years - ended with the death of Mao - political crisis in china as Mao dies (yet no democratic revolution) II) Modernizing China Modernization theory - theory of prerequisites Deng Xiao pung and china’s 4 modernizations - opening up china’s economy - undoing everything Mao had done - agriculture: people can keep the surplus they have in farming; more incentives - industry: creation of new factories; china opening up to foreign trade; special economic zones; encouraged private sector industry - national defense - science and technology: need research and development; need openness to rest of the world China’s GDP - china has become largest economy by 2013 - 1978 FDI in China was 0 - 1984 was 2.3 million - 2013 almost 60 billion China’s economic rise - society becoming literate -thhina meets all the requirements that modernization theory would describe (yet there is no 5 modernization => democracy) III) Globalizing Democracy End of history - looked like democracy was it rd 3 wave of democracy and c
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