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Lecture 3

POL322 Lecture 3 Notes

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Political Science
Kenichi Ariga

amy c pol322 jan.22.2014 research design: -obstacles to establishing causality: -confounding variables – causes: spurious, misguided, and hidden relationships -research designs: strategies researchers use to test whether x causes y -experiments -observational studies research design I: experiments -logic of experimentation: -definition of experiment: -the researcher controls values of independent variables -the researcher also randomly assigns values of indebtedness variables to the participants -typical experiment: -divide participants into 2 groups -random assignment: we put each individual into each group randomly. -if there is Z that are of confounding variables b/w x and y, the Random Assignment would balance the Z between the two groups. -different types of experiments: -i. laboratory experiment -in a laboratory -recruited voluntary participants -ii. Field experiment -conducted in a real world setting -iii. Survey experiment -conducted on a sample of people randomly selected from a large pop. -i. laboratory experiment: -CNN and FOX are the most popular news channels. -it is difficult to distinguish between news media's reputation and actual bias in news. They may be both confounding variables -the validity of experimental studies i. internal validity: internal to the experiment. The degree of confidence in the causal conclusion drawn from the analysis ii. External validity: the degree of confidence in genralizability of the causal conclusion drawn from the analysis ii. field experiment: -campaign promises and voter outcome -like if the promise is job creation, voter out
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