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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Political Science January 10 , 2011. Genocide Reading: Kuperman, Rwanda in Retrospect, pp.94-118 Genocide is committed with intent to destroy, in whole, or in par, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide Genocide occurs by: Killing member of the group Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction, in whole or in part Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group Forcibly transferring children of one group to another group Acts directed against political groups are excluded from the definition of genocide Crimes Against Humanity The Charter of the International Military Tribunal, passed in 1945, described these atrocities as customary international crimes that justify international criminal sanctions 2. War crimes, or violations of the laws and customs of war namely: Murder Ill-treatment Deportation for slave labour or for any other purpose of the civilian population of or in occupied territory Differences between War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity One instance of a reprehensible act could be a war crime, but not a crime against humanity. The latter must be shown to have resulted from widespread and systematic policy Also crimes against humanity (e.g. destruction of property and systematic persecution) can occur in any setting, while a war crimes takes place only during war The objection most frequently raised against the Convention on Genocide include: The convention excludes targeted political and social groups Providing intention beyond reasonable doubt is extremely difficult the difficulty of defining or measuring in part, and establishing how many deaths equal genocide
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