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POL101 Lecture Notes Second Semester

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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Jan 9 2011 SECOND TERM Nationalism and Conflictsnationalism conflict between nationsWhat is nationalismSeemingly obvious answer the ideology of nations a nation is a group that wants to have its own stateBut things are not so simpleWhat is a nation A group of people who believe they share a common fate history culture and language That the nation and the state should be congruentBut this occurs only under modern conditionsNever before in human history did people insist that their leaders be of the same culture and never did leaders try to make the people share their cultureModern phenomenonIts this need for congruence that needs to be explained that we identify with BC rather than Buffalo why does it only happen under modernity Throughout history people did not share the same culture as the people who ruled themNationalism and ModernizationHigh culture and low cultures European monarchs and populationsIndustrial society and need for universalization of high cultureIn this way nations are constructed they are projects of elites sometimes competing projects They dont exist as things in themselves but are the products of aggregated individual beliefsBut stakes are very high if YOUR culture is not adopted as the high and universal culture you face systematic disadvantagesIn industrial societies states are service organizations for providing common cultures education ie Ukraine Hungary SlovakiaSeen this way nations dont create nationalism nationalism creates nations Contextbound communication important to turn the dialect into the language a form of communication everyone can understand within a given territorythats what states do they ensure that we all share a common language and a common vocabulary to understand our cultureThe state takes one of the vernacular and makes it the winner takes one language and makes it the winner and the official languageNationalism and SequencingState first nation second France and BritainnationbuildingNation first state second Germany and Italy Ethnic vs Civic NationalismWhat is the basis of belonging political or culturalEthnic belonging based on history language and bloodCivic belonging based on political allegianceThin versus thickUnited States should be called the United Nations and United Nations should be called United States Prepolitical sense of being a member is not part of any politicsShare a set of common principles CanadaCompetition between these two principlesCanada liberalism versus communitarianism individual vs group rightsCanada multiculturalism is it really Citizenship and ethnicity are fusedJanuary 16 2012 Genocide and Justice guest lecturer Two major questionstopicsAn area of international institution building biggest change in building institutions what we think about genocide what we do about genocide and how to deal with genocidethe institutional respond for genocideDifficult choices that governments have to make in regards to genocideGenocide is committed with intent to destroy in whole or in part a national ethnic racial or religious groupINTENT is neededIt occurs by okilling members of the groupso causing serious bodily or mental harm to member of the group odeliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part oimposing measures intended to prevent births within the groupo forcibly transferring children of one group to another groupacts directed against political groups are excluded from the definition of genocide specific orders lawyers must demonstrate explicit intent of genocide gender age sexual orientation political groups are not included in the definition of genocide Crimes Against Humanity1945 passed namely murder enslavement deportation imprisonment torture rape other inhumane acts committed against any civilian population before or during the warIf anything occurs outside the context of war it doesnt count situationally specific War Crimes or violations of the laws and customs of warMurder illtreatment deportation for slave labour or for any other purpose of the civilian population of or in occupied territory genocide is both crimes against humanity and war crimes crimes against humanity are war crimes but not genocide Precedents 1 The trial of Nazi war criminals at Nuremberg for genocide and crimes against humanity after their DEFEAT in WWIIfirst time that government was held accountable for how they treated civilians during the war Nuremberg was where they were first passed the antiSemetic laws by the Nazis 2 It is NOT a defence to say that I was following ordersnot considered an international legal defence1998 the creation of the International Criminal Courtmandate of international crimes genocide crimes against humanity and war crimes A truth commission o A temporary body created by successor governments past violators o Set up by an official authorityo To investigate a pattern of gross human rights violations committed over a period of time in the pastinvestigating the criminal behaviour of a government that came before and was kicked out of office o With a view to issuing a public report o Which includes victims data and recommendations for justice and reconciliation to move forward in the society There is an inherent contradiction between justice and reconciliationTest Case ArgentinaUnder a military government in the 1970s from 900030000 persons are estimated to have disappeared in the war against subversion the dirty war the loss to the UK in the Falklands war in 1982 the new civilian govt brought only a few military leaders to trial for crimes against the population appoint a presidential panel to investigate the disappearances and the panel published a report on the caseBut unrest among the military led to retreat from further prosecutions and amnesty most violations by junior and midlevel officersWHAT IS SHE SAYINGWhat went wrong The lengthy time of prosecution gave the military time to regroup and organize and midlevel officers rather than senior commanders galvanized military oppositionConclusion justice and political stability are best reconciled through a program of prosecutions that has defined limitsChile president Aylwin was inaugurated in Marc
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