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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Politics Lecture Notes Sept 26 2011 The rise of the West and Marxismlecture threeEconomic development north west Europe ie Germany Netherlands Origins of the modern economy ththtwin revolutions 16 and 19 centuries agricultural and industrial Agricultural revolution may be hyperbole to use the word revolution very slow not many people recognized that the revolution was occurring Case of Flemish and British farmers surplus is the keyno surplus no wealthIndustrial RevolutionMoving west to east noticing the economic regression countries getting poorer farmers having ththless wealth less clothes pattern existed also in the 16 and 19 centuries th Originates in the late 18 century EnglandMore appropriately designated as a revolutionExample raw cotton processed in British factories 176022 million pounds 178722 millionAmounts of Iron processed into steel in English factories 1788 66000 tons 1806 250000 tons tenfold increase of production of steelProduced huge changes in domestic consumption patternsEveryone knew that the revolution was happening ConsequencesLuxuries came to be seen as mere decencies and decencies cam e to be seen as necessities Distribution highly uneven but now creation of middle class that had risen from manual labour to professional or entrepreneurial status ie beer underwear changing fashion knives etcSocial ResultsCapacity to produce surpluscreation of the middle class industrial revolution more consumption ECONOMICSIncreasing complexity of division of labour society became more complex state needed to regulate the complexity which ensued SOCIETYSOCIOLOGYNew forms of social consciousness people started thinking differently no longer believed that they were confined to the jobs into which they were born the notion of a right to have a say in the exercise in the public inquiry contributing to society educated adding to wealth political implications ANTHROPOLOGYKarl MarxStudent of capitalism GermanHow to analyze a society What does one look for firstQueens and Kings HegelDominant ideas What kind of food they eat alcohol they drink How to produce the means of their own material existenceTrying to figure out a method for figuring out societyhow he started Marx and MaterialismFeuerbach and critique of german idealism Hegel the philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways the point is to change itMarxMaterialism what is God FeuerbachHegel is more religious Feuerbach questioned it what do we mean by God When we think of God we take everything good inside of us and put it outside of us transform it into an alien being and then it rules over us Man created GodFor Marx this doesnt go far enoughagreed with Feuerbach believed we make up our spiritual life not liberating enough why do we need religion Because there is injustice in the worldWhy do we need religion Injustice You must go to the material causes why people think the way they do How people live determines what they think those who have nothing the poor the meek the desperateCritique of Hegel historical materialismHegel Consciousness creates societyMarx disagrees consciousness does not create being being creates consciousness How we live determines what we think and how we live is MATERIALMaterialist conception of history Materialist Conception of History Humans make their own means of survivalmake our own housing grow our own food etc Work is natural humans are creative creatures work is good History is the history of class struggle and forms of domination history is struggle but material strugglethe means of productionClass conflict either you own the means of production or work for the people who own the means of production Bourgeoisie and Proletariat History is the struggle of the people who do not own the means of production to own the means of productionCulture ideas art law moralityreligionall determined by mode of production superstructure Culture determined by needs of capitalismCritique of HegelSlave feudal capitalist socialistcommunist each culture and history have their own meansmodes of production revolutions are the locomotives of history Marx CapitalHistory moves from one stage to the next like Hegel it has meaning movement and an ENDIf history is the history of class struggle when does history end How does history unfoldExploitation of lower classes New classes grab power for their particular interest but claim it is in the universal interestThey create an ideology and exercise state power ideologymask behind which power hidesBut they too new group exploit labour and eventually their power is brought into questions by those who are being exploitedSo history will end when class struggle ends When does history endWhen does this come aboutMarxs analysis of social orders feudalism to capitalism and then his analysis of capitalism Immiseration becoming poorer and class consciousness wages lower higher competition working class will grow and become poorer and poorer and go to become a class of their own Marx History and PoliticsPresenting democracy as in the interest of all but actually in the interest of the ruling class Formal freedoms versus substantive reality how can you exercise your freedoms I you are poor Contradictions of CapitalismProduction is a public activity but is held in private handsWhat is a revolution Political versus social revolutionultimately alters societyWhen will the revolution happen Free will versus determinism capitalism will deteriorate and there will be a new societyProblem of false consciousness what if the workers dont want a revolution Theories about why revolution doesnt occur after Marx hegemony Gramsci corruptibility Lenin Global capitalism dependency theory American dream party of Marxist ideology to get people to continue to work really hard even though there is little chance to improve situation poverty will strip away the illusions of capitalism Consciousness is a product of material lifeMarxPeople always want more we lived in a society of scarcity and abundancecapitalist mentalitya fetish of commodityMarx wasnt against capitalism it creates all this technology and abundance and the only problem is that it does not distribute the wealth and technology evenlyWhole idea of communist contradictory The state is the executive community of the ruling classIs a vote politically equal to that of Kevin OLeary No He can use his money to advance the candidate of his choiceServing that of the ruling or richer classCoercion is the centre of the democratic stateWho decides whos in power of a communist state Prof doesnt knowThere will be something along the lines Marxs says but cannot see the futureSource of motivation of need to work wont workJust as feudalism had past so will capitalism the motivation for being creative the desire to do his publishing is not tied to the income of money Proletariat are wage workersPeople are always materialistsUrban poor in France and Rural of the Americans and their revolutions they were being led by the new bourgeoisieOct 3 2011 Modern Democracy Wong Apartheid in South Africa 1978 sexual relations between races were illegal people were physically segregated on the basis of race no mixing passes needed in order to visit other segregated places blacks forcibly removed from certain areas Example of official racial segregationBlack 19 million 80 White45 million land allocation white87 share of national income 75ration of average earnings 141 white to black annual expenditure white 700 black45Democracy is a relatively new idea for the worldtaking democracy for grantedIncrease in democracy from 1975 2010 the third wave of democracy postwar modernization rapid economic growth social development modernization theory growingthey would become politically modern a natural progressionNonetheless in principal democratic virtues are appealingparticipation how our government is run collective decision making no oligarchies democracy is about collective decision making ideally
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