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Lecture

Lecture - Chinese Democracy (for RZ).docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL101Y1
Professor
Joseph Wong
Semester
Fall

Description
PoliSci Lecture - Democracy with Chinese Characteristi2012-10-29 12:13 PM 1880-1890’s way of thinking follows Fukuyama’s thinking despite the appeal of other forms of gov’t (fascism, communism), the success of liberal democracy means the end of history Burma impossibilities of political reform once seemed impossible, now end of history, institutionalization and liberal democracy resiliency of democracy to adapt to different issues social democratic welfare state flexible set of institutions capacity to absorb/accommodate the valid challenges of other forms of gov’t *one defiant example of “end of history thesis” is CHINA: massive demonstrations in Tiananmen Square, democracy was soon to arrive due to national politicization movement. attractive alternative model to fascism and communism is CHINESE CHINESE EXAMPlE not only a successful example also an attractive and viable example for other developing countries more attractive than liberal democracy decline of the United States (the hegemonic example of democratic success), slow decline, lowering prestige in economic/political affairs E.U. and principles of supra-national democracies non-success means many look to China as a practical alternative liberal minded academics, even, seem to prefer their own form of government in China (why switch to a corrupt democracy like the USA?) although there is talk about political reform there, it is not to instate democracy, but to improve elections processes, transparency in gov’t (i.e. democratic style Chinese gov’t) “The people’s wishes for/needs for democracy and freedom are irresistible” – Chinese Premier on CNN also echoed by Chinese President in international press There is currently a change in the political party CCCP in China new leader, political reform, next 10 years, continued growth that is sustainable for the political system prospects of political reform high level discussions in China about reform, and incline in number of protests occurring in China (100,000’s per year) What are the prospects of reform in China? *knowing this can help us compare it as an opposition to democracy Chinese example is another challenge to liberal democracy’s resiliency (other examples stated before, should help with points for essay writing) China In the Modern Era must appreciate the fact that liberal democracy is not foreign to China over the past few hundred years, there have been many attempts at democracy 1911-1912 = end of Qing Dynasty 1842 = China fought a war against England (“Oppium War”) English trading companies were selling opium in and outside of china moral decay of Chinese with addiction to the drug economic sensibilities and pleas were denied English won defiantely Chinese had to pay war reparations for English fighting expenses giving of Hong Kong to England 1845 = Treay of Osekie, Chinese war against Japan seemed China couldn't lose to their tiny neighbor, they did! another source of Chinese shame China gets Taiwan with Treaty of Osekie =National Humiliation Population Issues 1911 = End of Qing Dynasty = 20 Million Poeple 1950 = 480 Million People ? Industrialization of Chinese competitors America and Japan industrialized china continued to be an agricultural exporter need for industry reform Chinese Political Reform = Necessary nationalist republican revolution lead by intellectual in china overthrow of the emperor, last Qing (e.g. movie: Last Emperor) Oct. 1911 Sun-Yet Sen = new leader of China main goal: rebuild china after Qing Dynasty intellectual fervor forward thinking of rebuilding nation into Modern China philosophical reflection 3 Principles of the People Nation most important factor, one unified nation Democracy no more emperor worship, but democracy with equal rights Welfare nation has a responsibility to care for its citizens *Similar to Lincoln’s Gov’t as “of the people, by the people, for the people.” Seemed china was looking West for inspiration, modern China was emerging! Actual Result was Non-Democratic Politics Shanghai Skyline Was agricultural land only decades ago enormous wealth and economic growth seeming modernity BUT June 1989 “Tank Man” standing in front of line of tanks in Tiananmen Square People’s Republic Army entering the square to disperse protests It is hard to accurately describe China’s political system It is ever changing Therefore: we have a theory of “democracy with Chinese characteristics” as the Chinese put it. We know China is not democratic Not Polyarchy (there has been one leader planned for a while to take over the current) Bad human rights consolidation of legislature, judicial, and military wings. censorship and political control China is turning political theory “on its head” “as societies modernize, they democratize” – this is not so in China and doesn't seem to be emerging! we don’t want to deny the possibility of democracy though Examples of Idea/Possibility of Democracy in China democratic revolution October 1949 Mao Tze Tong Founding of the “People’s Republic of China” (no long just Republic) 3 Guiding Principles of new nation socialism (breaking bonds of feudalism from Qing Dynasty) Chinese Revolutionary Spirit (Chinese had fought for nationalist party, also fought Japanese) (people’s revolutionary spirit was guidance) Anti-foreign (1842, Opium War, 1845, Japan War) (We have been the victim of the world!) (deep sense of anti-foreign power, but socialism/self-reliance would help China be unified) Mao was basically a cult leader (he was the leader against national party and Japanese aggression) Maoist Socialism anti-foreign nationalism, self reliance closed-door policy (borders not open to foreigners like EU and America) "We will develop more, faster, better, and more economically” harnessing unleashed revolutionary power of people’s work 12 Year Plan agricultural increase by 185% (Mao beloved it could occur in 7 years!) collectivization of land, co-operation first few years, production did increase high-tide of socailsm 1949-1956 *Actually was just an increase in inputs (hard work, hours, working the land) and therefore outputs increased! No increase in efficiency Mao took credit for this growth, confidence in support from the masses Mao: “100 Flowers Movement” (1956) “hundred flowers bloom and a hundred thoughts contend” Allowing people to criticize the government Mao only opened himself up to criticism thinking no one would criticize! could keep revolutionary spirit alive and rekindle spirit! *People actually took this offer seriously! We aren’t under threat from Japan or England anymore, economics is better, but we want changes! liberal policies, i.e. democracy increased outputs are due to our hard work! Mao: “all words/actions that depart from socialism are wrong” Few months after 100 Flowers Movement, he claims this is anti-socialist thought Anti-Rightist Campaign (1957) movement is a Bourgoisie anti-revolutionary treason Purging of many anti-Mao Great Leap Forward (1958-1962) Mao launches a more extreme form of socialist policy, more nationalism and less internationalism Creation of Communes Not only agriculture was communal, but life now was too! no idea of individualism, centered around commune Steel Furnaces Working collectively/co-operatively will create higher yields and sharing meant no hunger Mao believed this also applied to industrialization (centered in communes, all around steel) Chinese lost Opium War and Japanese War due to steel-produc
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