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Lec. 7, Oct. 31st Chinese Democracy.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

1 Christopher Grossi POL101Y1 October 31, 11 Lecture 7—Democracy with Chinese Characteristics  Laws past are unconstitutional—not majority consent of people (only 50%) voting.  Counterargument: parties become obsessed with majority—essentially become the same.  Start essay this week.  Democracies are far from perfect—argue this—compare it with communism and fascism.  Democracies have the ability to change—adapt. China in the Modern Era  End of the Qing Dynasty o Ends at the beginning of the 20 century o Opium war of 1842—China vs. British—British and been exporting Opium to China—many became addicted and it became a social scourge of South China. China are pissed, start a war and get destroyed o 1895—War with Japan. Defeated by another Asian country. The Japanese in the treaty gained Taiwan and concessions in China and they had to payback the Japanese (military reparations) o Defeat of the idea of the Chinese Nation. o Psychological fragility causes instability—creates Modern China o China had a population crisis—extremely rapid. Qing Dynasty—population was 80 million. o 1850—500 million. o Dependent on its export economy  Other communities were beginning to Challenge China in its economic export growth  China was a backwards country—very poor. o 3) Nationalist Revolution  Manchurian dynasty—the rulers were not the Han, they were an outside power.  Chance to stand up to its outside powers  Republican revolution o Led by Son Yit Sien o Emperor overthrown , doesn’t leave his position until 1912. o China became a modern country; a republic. o Son Yiat-Sen became the president.  “Three Principles of the People”  Make China modern so it could fight the British, be disgraced when defeated by another Asian country. o Nation—China would be a nation that is self-reliant and can protect itself o Democracy—create the political institutions that would allow the institutions of democracy to flourish. 2 o Welfare—Democratic republic—china could feed its people. Could defend for the welfare of the Chinese people.  Wanted a modern democratic, republic  Despite the promise of the axiom moral of Lincoln—Modern China is not democratic.  Modern China: o Shanghai skyline o June 4, 1989—Tiananmen Square Protest—students protested for democracy, Military was sent in and killed people. o Modern China is NOT democratic.  Not Communist, not Fascist but Chinese  Not a polyarchy either  Institutionalized uncertainty—losers today can win tomorrow—this doesn’t happen in China. o There are no other alternatives to the CCP being the dominant party in China. o Poor human rights record.  China doesn’t have meaningful elections—Choose between A, B, C of the same party  Freedoms are severely suppressed—You can protest, but limits—you can say what you want, but there are limits. (15:00)  Censorship is rampant—China suppresses outside information.  Second largest economy in the world  Turning theory on its head o How can a country be modern if not a democracy? (I) A Democratic Revolution  High tide of Maoist Socialism (1949-56) o Chinese Communist party had won the Civil War—could have moved towards democracy. o When Mao founded the PRC o Three principles:  Socialism—break the old, feudal ways. Break capitalism and feudal ways of economic organization  Chinese Revolutionary Spirit—We Won! We beat the Amercian-backed Republicsan party.  Anti-Foreign Nationalism: foreigners have done nothing good for China—Britain fucked us with Opium. Japs kicked our ass and WE PAY THEM. Lincoln idea—what did that bring us? Chaos.  Foreigners did nothing for China—China must be self-reliant.  Modern China in Mao socialism was anchored in self-reliance.  Under Mao, China could realize its true potential. o 1956—Mini Leap Forward  Economic model of development that was nationalist, socialist and bring upon self- dependence.  “more, faster better and economically”  First twelve year plan—targets of what China would produce in twelve years  Mao thought that agricultural production would increase 200% 3  China collectivized its land—reflected belief of “The Energy of the Masses.”  In the first years, agricultural production increased  100 Flowers Movement (1956) o He believed he could do no wrong—cocky. People were no longer starving. o Mao said: you can criticize the party—didn’t believe anyone could or would criticize him. o Let 100 flowers bloom, let 100 thoughts condemn. o Thought people would get excited—what happened was that people took him seriously and criticized him. This is great, but now we need more political freedom as China develops economically. o People wanted democracy. o Mao: this is an attack on Socialism & Mao  All actions and words that are against Socialism are an attack on Socialism and Mao himself  Anti-rightist Campaign (1957) o Critics were labeled as anti-revolutionary, purged and they lost everything. (29:00) o Leaders were kicked out of the party.  Great Leap Forward (1958-1962) o Communism—people would work, live eat together. Life would be communized. o Private property & space was to be eliminated. o Society was organized into Work brigades o Steel furnaces—everyone would work together, en
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