Lec #4 October 3d
Apartheid in South Africa
1952 – Pass Law
White population consisted of 4.5 million while black population was 19 million.
However 75% of national capital belonged to white population.
Pop 19 mil (80%) 4.5 mil
Land Allocation 13% 87%
Share of National Capital 20% 75%
Ratio of Av. Earnings 1 14
Physicians 1/44000 1/
Number of democracies has been steadily increasing.
From 46 in 1975 to 114 in 2010
Drop from 120 in 2005 to 114 in 2010.
In democratic states, the people is sovereign; in oligarchies, on the other hand, a few
of oligoli hae v the position – Aristotle, the Politics
Samuel Huntigton on Democracy – a 20 century pol system is democratic to the
extent thaqt its most powerful collective decision-makers
Democracy means collective decision making.
Liberty (freedom of the press, freedom of association, freedom of speech,
rights to oppose/disagree / descent
Liberty allows us to argue, debate. Through political institutions.
Citizens of democratic government are equal regardless the gender, race and etc.
Everyone can vote and everyone is enjoying the freedom of speech modern liberalism – the equity and the quality og the individual
Rule of Law - violating rulus - violating the law
Pluralism - is essential for decent, debate and arguing – multiple interest &
Institutionary uncertainty - is about winners & losersability to vote
government out, losers are never out)
Between 1997 and 2010 53 cases of democracies breakdowns
Democracy as a process.
Hugh Guthrie. MP, 1920 – to vote is the right of every citizen
In 1967 \In 1899
1918 – white women could vote
1963 – branch vote
How do we choose democracy? How do we make it work?
o Economic Transformation
Surplus started selling, trade, infrastructure, trading system,
o Economic development (people got richer)
o Demographic change ( people live longer work longer
o Social Change ( chutch becomes less important, values